Cancer
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Below you will find general studies on cancer and by clicking above you can search more specific ones.

Aspirin Low-Dose No Benefit Against Cancer in Huge Study: In the 10.1-year Women's Health Study, a randomized DB PC 2 x 2 factorial trial of aspirin and vitamin E on 39,876 US women over age 44, a dose of 100 mg of aspirin (n=19 934) every other day had no effect on total cancer (RR = 1.01), breast cancer (RR, 0.98), colorectal cancer (RR, 0.97), or cancer of any other site, with the exception of lung cancer for which there was a trend toward reduction in risk (RR, 0.78; P = .08). There was also no reduction in cancer mortality either overall (RR, 0.95; P = .51) or by site, except for lung cancer mortality (n = 140; RR, 0.70; P = .04). No evidence of differential effects of aspirin by follow-up time or interaction with vitamin E was found. Low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of cancer: the Women's Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. Cook NR, et al. Brigham and Women's Hospital- Harvard. JAMA. 2005 Jul 6;294(1):47-55.

ARF, p53, B23 Proteins Abnormal in Cancer: ARF is the second most frequently altered protein in cancer development, and it helps manage the tumor suppressor protein p53, which is the most common protein defect associated with cancer. ARF also controls the protein B23, which is found in abnormally high levels in almost every tumor cell. Ribosomes develop, based on instructions from the cell's DNA genetic code and run ribosome "protein factories" from RNA (decoded DNA) without which cells cannot grow. ARF can help limit the production of ribosomes, and hinder growth. It does this by "degrading" or inhibiting the B23 protein, which helps trigger mature formation of the ribosome factory. ARF in abnormal in 40% of cancers. U Tx MD Anderson's Zhang Yanping, Molecular Cell 11/03.

B-12, Folate, and Chromosome Damage: B-12 & folate deficiencies assoc with incr chromosome damage and incr homocysteine. 64 men DB PC 4 mo 2mg folate. 23% folate def., 5% B-12 def., 37% incr homocyst. Incr micronucleus index with deficiency but also with incr homocyst without def. Suppl no impact on decreasing index. Fenech, Adelaide, Carcinogenesis 97;18:1329

B-12 and Folate: Damage Linked to Homocysteine and Decreased by B-12 & Folate: A study of 63 healthy adults 18-32 yo found only one with low B-12. Micronucleation was linked to low normal B-12 and high homocysteine. They were given 3 times the standard RDA dose of B-12 and folate for 3 months, then 10 times for 3 months. There was a decrease in micronucleation in the 50% initially higher in micronucleation and the decrease correlated with B-12 and homocysteine levels. DNA methlyation was not changed by supplements. Fenech, Adelaide, Carcinogenesis, 7/98;19:1163

B-12 & Folate Help Smokers: In a DB PC study, folate 10 mg/d and B-12 500 microg/d decreased atypia in sputum sample of 73 regular smokers with bronchial squamous metaplasia. Heimburger, U Alabama, JAMA 88;259:1525

Obesity Increases Cancer 16%: 16 years evaluating 900,000 people who were cancer-free when the study began in 1982. Excess weight may account for 14% cancer deaths in men and 20% in women. BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 was considered normal; overweight (25 to 29.9) or obese (30 or over). Earlier studies have found that excess weight contributes to cancers of the breast and uterus, colon and rectum, kidney, esophagus and gall bladder. This one also linked it to cancers of the cervix and ovary, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, pancreas, liver, and, in men, the stomach and prostate. The researchers found no link between fat and brain, skin and bladder cancers. NEJM 4/24/03

Folate Did Not Help Cervical Dysplasia: DB PC 6 month study 235 women with cervical dysplasia, 50mg/d made no diff. Buttersworth, U Alabama, Am J Ob Gyn 92;166:803

Metformin Lowers Cancer Risk in Diabetics by 25%: In a DB PC study of 6,000 diabetic adults, the half assigned to take metformin developed 25% fewer cases of cancer during follow-up. The metformin simulates an enzyme AMPK which may keep cancer at bay. Metformin lowers insulin-like growth factor, which in higher levels has been linked to prostate, breast, and colon cancers. Metformin is currently being investigated as a general cancer preventive agent. Alessi et al. University of Dundee, BMJ  7/2005.

Sunlight Good Against Cancer; Is This a Vitamin D Effect?: Cancer (2002;94:1867-75), examined cancer mortality in the United States. Deaths from a range of cancers of the reproductive and digestive systems were approximately twice as high in New England as in the south west, despite a diet that varies little. Close inverse correlation between cancer mortality and levels of ultraviolet B light. The likeliest mechanism for a protective effect of sunlight is vitamin D. same geographical trend affects black Americans, whose overall cancer rates are significantly higher. Darker skinned people require more sunlight to synthesize vitamin D. strongest inverse correlation is with breast, colon, and ovarian cancer." Other cancers apparently affected by sunlight include tumors of the bladder, uterus, esophagus, rectum, and stomach. Cancer (2002;94:272-81), looked at rates of breast cancer in 35 countries. That study attributed 25% of cases of breast cancer in Europe to insufficient exposure to ultraviolet B. "The correlation between breast cancer and latitude in Europe becomes clearest when Scandinavia is removed from the analysis, probably because they get so much vitamin D from fish consumption," he said. "They also put vitamin D in their milk." Vitamin D supplements in pill form are cheap and readily available, but it is not known whether they can act as a direct substitute for vitamin D synthesized from sunlight.

Mental Attitude No Help with Cancer: Meta-analysis of 28 studies found no impact on survival from a positive mental attitude. BMJ 2002, p. 1066

Src Helps Cause Metastases: Src sends out signals for the removal of a molecule, called E-cadherin, which is needed to hold cells together. It also works with integrins, another set of molecules, to form a new and much looser type of tissue structure that allows cancerous cells to move and spread. Nature Cell Biology 8/5/02

PM10 Particle Pollution Increases Lung Cancer: A study of 6338 7th day Adventist with 25 year follow-up found exposure to particles of less the 10 micrometers increased lung cancer in men with highest exposure RR 2.38. Ozone and SO2 also implicated. Am J Resp Crit Car Med 99;159:373

Meta-analysis Tomatoes Linked to Lower Cancer: J Natl Cancer Inst 2/17/99 Ed Giovannucci, Harvd. 72 studies have examined cancers and tomatoes. 57 of 72 linked tomato intake to reduced risk. 35 studies strong enough to be statistically significant. Most compelling for prostate, lung, and stomach. Also pancreatic, colorectal, esophageal, oral, breast, cervical.

Childhood Fruit Linked to Decrease Adult Cancer: England-Scotland study of 4000 adults with retrospective vegetable and fruit intakes from 1930s and 40s found 38% lower cancer rates linked to higher fruit consumption. No link to vegetables. Maynard M, Gunnell D, Emmett P, et al. Fruit, vegetables, and antioxidants in childhood and risk of adult cancer: the Boyd Orr cohort. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2003;57:218-25.

Milk, Liver Increased Cancer in Study: An Italian matched control study with 158 Hodgkins, 429 non-Hodgkins lymphomas, 141 multiple myelomas and 101 sarcomas with over 1000 controls found RR highest tertile milk consumption 1.8 for NHL and 1.9 for sarcoma. Liver RR 1.8 HD, 1.6 NHL, 2.0 myeloma; Ham RR 1.7 HD; Butter RR 2.8 myelomas. Greens 0.4 for myeloma and whole grains 0.4 for NHL and 0.2 sarcomas. Coffee and alcohol not associated. Tavani, Milan, Nutr Cancer 97;27:256

No Increase Cancer in Fliers: 44,000 airline crew had no higher cancer rates than general population. Amer J Epid 158:35, 2003. A doubling of skin cancer in males may be due to more vacations in the sun. Study of 28,000 pilots in Internatl J Cancer, 2003, found 1/3 fewer cancer deaths. Therefore, there appears to be no fear of cosmic rays.

Radiation Damage in Cervical Cancer Treatment Reduced: In a randomized open 8-week trial of trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain 120 women undergoing radiation therapy for cervical cancer, the maximum extent of acute radiation side effects was reduced in the enzyme group: skin reactions (mean: 0.97 vs 1.68 in the control, P < 0.001), vaginal mucosal reactions (0.55 vs 0.85, P = 0.10), genitourinary symptoms (0.93 vs 1.38, P < 0.001) and gastrointestinal reactions (1.12 vs 1.30, P = 0.12). In the follow-up visits all observed side effects of radiation therapy were of lower intensity in the enzyme group than in the control group. Dale PS, et al. India. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2001 Jul;47 Suppl:S29-34.

Radiation Damage in Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Reduced: In a similar randomized open trial of 100 patients, the severity (maximum extent) of acute radiation therapy side effects was significantly less in enzyme-treated patients than in control patients: mucositis (mean: 1.3 vs 2.2, P < 0.001), skin reaction (1.2 vs 2.4, P < 0.001) and dysphagia (1.4 vs 2.2, P < 0.001). Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2001 Jul;47 Suppl:S23-8.