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Bladder Cancer: Yogurt, Skimmed Milk Associated with Lower Bladder Cancer; Pop Bad: In a small Belgrade case control study of 130 bladder cancer patients, a multivariate logistic regression model showed consumption of: soda (OR=8.32), coffee (OR=1.46) and spirits (OR=1.15) as statistically significant risk factors, while mineral water (OR=0.52), skim milk (OR=0.38), yogurt (OR=0.34) and an increased frequency of daily urination (OR=0.27) were statistically significant protective variables. Fluid intake and bladder cancer. A case control study. Radosavljevic V, Jankovic S, Marinkovic J, Djokic M. Neoplasma. 2003;50(3):234-8

Bladder Cancer: Lower Risk with Yogurt in Diet: In a Japanese study of 181 cases and 455 controls, diets over the previous 15 years found smoking had an increased risk of bladder cancer OR 1.61 and 1-4 times per week yogurt consumption had a reduced risk of bladder cancer OR 0.54. Habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria and risk reduction of bladder cancer. Ohashi Y, Nakai S, Tsukamoto T, Masumori N, Akaza H, Miyanaga N, Kitamura T, Kawabe K, Kotake T, Kuroda M, Naito S, Koga H, Saito Y, Nomata K, Kitagawa M, Aso Y. University of Tokyo. Urol Int. 2002;68(4):273-80

Breast Cancer Patients Consumed Less Yogurt, More Dairy: In a Uruguayan study of 111 breast cancer patients and 222 controls, after controlling for age, years of urban status, education, body mass index, age at menarche, menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, number of childbirths, total energy and total fruits, a multivariate analysis found that high intakes of whole milk, chocolate milk and Gruyere cheese were associated with significant increased risk of breast cancer, whereas ricotta cheese and skim yoghurt were associated with significant decreased risks. Dairy foods and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Montevideo, Uruguay. Ronco AL, De Stefani E, Dattoli R. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002 Oct;11(5):457-63

Breast Cancer Patients Consumed Less Yogurt; More Cheese and Milk: In an impressively large French case-control study of 1,010 breast cancer cases and 1,950 controls with nonmalignant diseases, the risk of breast cancer was found to be positively associated with frequency of cheese consumption and the level of fat in the milk consumed. A negative association was found between frequency of yogurt consumption and the risk of breast cancer. No association was found between the consumption of butter and the risk of breast cancer. The positive association between a daily consumption of alcohol and the risk of breast cancer previously reported was not altered when dairy produce consumption was taken into account. Consumption of dairy produce and alcohol in a case-control study of breast cancer. Le MG, Moulton LH, Hill C, Kramar A. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986 Sep;77(3):633-6

Breast Cancer Patients Consumed Less Yogurt, Buttermilk, Gouda Cheese; Milk No Impact: In a Dutch study of 133 breast cancer patients and 287 controls, the 1 cup/day consumption of fermented milk (yogurt or buttermilk) had a relative risk of breast cancer of 0.63, while Gouda fermented cheese had an RR of 0.56. Milk consumption made no difference in breast cancer rates. Consumption of fermented milk products and breast cancer: a case-control study in The Netherlands. van't Veer P, Dekker JM, Lamers JW, Kok FJ, Schouten EG, Brants HA, Sturmans F, Hermus RJ. Cancer Res. 1989 Jul 15;49(14):4020-3. Ed: Buttermilk causes symptoms of lactose intolerance in susceptible individuals, but live-culture yogurt is very well tolerated. (Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Dec;40(6):1219-23)

Colon Adenomas: Yogurt Associated with Fewer Colon Adenomas; Animal Fats, Refined Bread and Pasta with More: In a French case control study of 362 patients with pre-cancerous adenomas compared to matched control, consumption of lean meat was associated with a reduced risk of adenomas [odds ratio (OR) for 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.3]. There was an increased risk with pates and meat spread [OR = 2.3], refined bread [OR = 2.1], and refined pasta (OR = 1.7). Animal fats were associated with an increased risk of large adenomas (OR = 2.4), whereas yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk (OR for high vs. no intake = 0.5). Foods as risk factors for colorectal adenomas: a case-control study in Burgundy (France). Senesse P, Boutron-Ruault MC, Faivre J, Chatelain N, Belghiti C, Meance S. Nutr Cancer. 2002;44(1):7-15

Colorectal Cancer: Yogurt Probably Make no Difference: In a research review, authors note that cohort studies consistently have found a protective effect of total dairy products and milk intake, but this evidence has not supported by case-control studies. No relationship was found with cheese or yogurt intake. As the number of cohort studies is still limited, their results need to be confirmed by other prospective studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan;57(1):1-17

Yogurt, Green Leafy Vegetables Lower Colorectal Cancer Risk: In a 9.9 year prospective study of 45,181 men and 62,643 women ages 40-79 in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Between 1988 and 1990, 457 died of colon or rectal cancer. Eating green leafy vegetables was linked to a 40% decreased risk (HR = 0.6; p = 0.02]. Yogurt was linked to a 50% decrease in male rectal cancer mortality (HR = 0.5; p = 0.04). Egg consumption was associated with an increase male colon cancer mortality (P = 0.04). Women with high fruit consumption had increased colon cancer mortality (HR = 1.6; p = 0.04). Diet and colorectal cancer mortality: results from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Kojima M, Wakai K,  Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Mizuho, Nagoya, Japan. Nutr Cancer. 2004;50(1):23-32.

Multiple Myeloma: Yogurt Might be a Risk Factor Along with Cigarettes; Vegetables Good: In a small case-control study of 100 multiple myeloma patients, smoking more than 24 cigarettes per day (Odds ratio--OR=6.7); having more than two brothers (OR=2.7), rheumatoid arthritis in personal history (OR=4.2), and frequent (4-7 times per week vs. lower frequency) consumption of yogurt (OR=3.1) and vegetables (OR=0.4). Univ. Belgrade. Case-control study of multiple myeloma with special reference to diet as risk factor. Vlajinac HD, Pekmezovic TD, Adanja BJ, Marinkovic JM, Kanazir MS, Suvajdzic ND, Colovic MD. Neoplasma. 2003;50(1):79-83. Ed: This is a very small study and case-control studies are notorious for being unreliable.

Thomas E. Radecki, M.D., J.D.