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Omega-3 Linked to Decreased Pre-Menopausal Breast Cancer: 565 cases and 545 controls. RR = 0.59 or 41% decrease with higher omega-3. Dietary (n-3)/(n-6) fatty acid ratio: possible relationship to premenopausal but not postmenopausal breast cancer risk in U.S. women. Goodstine SL, Zheng T, Holford TR, Ward BA, Carter D, Owens PH, Mayne ST. J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5):1409-14

Lower Breast Cancer: In Spain, high-3, low-6 associated with 68% lower breast CA vs other European countries. Am J Epid ’98 147:342-52.

DHA May Protect Against Breast CA: Zhu, Finland, Nutr Cancer 24:151-60, ’95 Fatty acid composition of breast adipose tissue in 73 breast CA pts and in 55 pts with benign disease. Dietary EPA and DHA lower in breast CA pts. DHA also lower in breast tissue of breast CA pts regardless of cancer stage. Animal studies suggest n-3 have inhibitory effect of breast CA. Fish oil may influence host immune mechanisms, such as interleukin and tumor necrosis factor production, and lymphocyte activation. EPA and DHA have strong antiproliferative effects on mitogen- and antigen-stimulate3d human T cells in vitro.

Fish Consumption Protects Against Breast CA: Fish consumption is negatively associated with the risk of breast CA in Eskimo and Norwegian women (Bang, Acta Med Scand 200:69-73, ’76; Hislop, Cancer Detect Prev 9:47-5, ’86; Kaiser, Nutr Cancer 12:61-8, ’89; Vatten, Int J Cancer 46:112-5, ’90)

Omega-6 Increase Breast CA, omega-3 Decreases it: Oil high in n-6 (corn, safflower) incr breast CA 69% in 61000 women. Breast CA decr by incr mono-, e.g. olive & canola. Reference not recorded. Corn and safflower oil incr breast cancer in animals and fish oil decrease this effect. Human studies show higher n-3:n-6 is protectiveSimonsen Am J Epid ’96;143:S34.

Flax Flour or Fish Oil Decreases Rat Breast CA: Rats fed diet with flax four had less CA due to 7,12-dimethlbenzanthracene administration with 67% decr in size of tumors. Serraino, Nutr Cancer 17,153-9, ’92; Several studies with fish oil have found the same effect and also inhibition of human breast cancer cell growth in mice. David Rose, Nutr & Cancer ’94 21:103-11

Fish Oil Protective in Mice: A controlled study found that three different diet with fish oil were all protective decreasing primary or metastatic cancer. Nutr Cancer ’97;29:46

Fish Oil’s Protective Property Due to DHA and EPA: Mice study. J Natl Cancer Inst ’95;87:587; Fish oil suppressed breast CA vs. corn oil J Natl Cancer Inst ’93;85:1743

Other Cancers

Mothers Eating Meat and Sugar in Pregnancy Increased Risk of Leukemia in Their Infants; Fish, Fruits, Vegetables Reduced the Risk: Because leukemia clone-specific chromosomal abnormalities are present at birth in children who later develop leukemia, the authors did a nationwide case-control study of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) among children ages 12 to 59 months in Greece. Children (n=131) with ALL were matched to control children (n=131) hospitalized for minor conditions. Controlling for total energy intake and possible confounding factors, the risk of ALL in the offspring was 28% lower with increased maternal intake of fruits (OR, 0.72), 24% for increased vegetables (OR, 0.76), and 28% for increased fish and seafood (OR, 0.72), but 32% higher for maternal intake of sugars and syrups (OR, 1.32) and 25% higher for meat and meat products (OR, 1.25). Children of women who tend to consume during their pregnancies what is currently considered to be a healthy diet maybe at lower risk of ALL. Maternal diet and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in young children. Petridou E, et al. Athens University, Greece. . Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Aug;14(8):1935-9.

Lung Cancer Decreased with Increased Fish Intake: A Japanese study of 5885 adults followed for 14 years found broiled or boiled fish intake associated with reduced lung cancer but not the intake of dried/salted fish. Diet and lung cancer risk from a 14-year population-based prospective study in Japan: with special reference to fish consumption. Decreases with raw or deep-fried fish did not reach statistical significance. Takezaki T, Inoue M, Kataoka H, Ikeda S, Yoshida M, Ohashi Y, Tajima K, Tominaga S. Nutr Cancer. 2003;45(2):160-7

Increased Lung CA with Sat Fat Intake: J Natl Cancer Inst 85:1906-16, ’93. 17000 cases a year in non-smokers. Study was of non-smoking Missouri women. High fat dairy also implicated so probably not heterocyclic aromatic amines.

Peanut Oil Safer than Canola for Wok: 1,3-Butadiene, benzene, acrolein, formaldehyde, and other related compounds were detected, with emissions tending to be highest for unrefined Chinese rapeseed oil and lowest for peanut oil. The emission of 1,3-butadiene and benzene was 22-fold and 12-fold higher, respectively, from heated unrefined Chinese rapeseed oil than from heated peanut oil. Lowering the cooking temperatures or adding an antioxidant, such as butylated hydroxyanisole, before cooking decreased the amount of these volatile emissions. Heated linolenic acid produced the greatest quantities of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and acrolein. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995 Jun 7;87(11):836-41

Evening Primrose Oil No Benefit Liver Cancer: Primary Liver CA DB no diff survival time or liver size. Higher dose needs researching. U Southern Africa. Prostag Leuk EFA 7/90;40:199-202

Says No Incr CA due to Linoleic; Linolenic May Incr Prostate CA: Meta-analysisof many studies says no incr CA breast, colorectal or prostate fr linoleic, even very high. Peter Zock, Am J Clin Nutr ’98;68:142-53. Says higher prostate CA with linolenic, not linoleic in Health Care Professionals and Physicians studies ((J Natl Cancer Inst ’93;85:1571; J Natl Cancer Inst ’94;86:281-6). In the Health Prof study (’93) total fat RR 1.79 for advanced prostate CA, primarily due to animal fat (RR 1.63 and not veg fat. Red meat the strongest RR 2.64. Fat from dairy (except butter) and fish unrelated with non-signif lower RR .90 with highest fish. Alpha-linolenic RR 3.43! At low levels alpha-linolenic incr mammary tumors but at high intake it decreases them. Many in study had alpha-linolenic intake under the recommended 800-1100 mg/d. Oxidation of alpha-linolenic acid in cooking of meat could be a culprit or absence of balance of linoleic and linolenic in meat eaters. Level of linolenic in tissue correlates with CA prostate risk. In ’94 physician study linoleic RR .70 and linolenic RR 3.0. Mice prostate CA incr by corn oil and decr by fish oil. No relationship found at f/u when 120 CA pt compared to 120 matched controls for plasma fatty acid contents. Rat studies consistently find lower CA prost with fish oil but mixed results with flax and soy.

Decr CA: 14727 women no link CA and fat, calories, fiber, carbo but more fish & shellfish decr CA risk. Nutr & Cancer 28:276-81 ’97.

Fish Oil Incr CA Survival: 18 g/d in 60 Pt with term CA incr survival. Cancer ’98 1/15 82:395-402

Fish Oil Cuts Prostate CA Rates: Moderate amounts of mackerel, salmon, sardines cuts prostate ca risks in half. Lancet 6/2/01. Swedish males. A critic of the study questions if some of benefit due to substituting fish for red meat, butter, and cream rather than from the fish itself.

Eskimo Prostate Cancer Rare: Study of 61 autopsies found no cancer in situ and only one invasive cancer. Inuit are protected against prostate cancer. Dewailly E, Mulvad G, Sloth Pedersen H, Hansen JC, Behrendt N, Hart Hansen JP. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Sep;12(9):926-7


Lowers Colon CA Mice: Fish oil compared to control diet or coconut oil 20% diet had markedly less colon CA growth in nude mice innoculated with human cancer cells. Sakaguchi, Birmingham, Anticancer Res 11/90;10:1763

Fish Decr Colon CA: Italian study 1125 CA colon, 728 CA rectum, 4154 hosp controls asked 79 food items. Bread and cereals (RR 1.11), but not wholemeal bread (RR .88) slightly incr colon CA as did refined sugar (RR 1.11). Fish (RR .53), raw and cooked vegt (RR .79 & .65), and fruits (RR .93) assoc with inverse risk. Franceschi S, Eur J Cancer Prev 1998 May; 7 Suppl 2:S19-23.

Fish Oil Decr Marker for Human Colon CA: DB PC of pts with Stage 1 or 2 9g/d n-3 fish oil for 6 months. Placebo group had incr in uptake of colon CA marker %S phase BrdUrd. Hwang, Harvd, Lipid 3/96;31Suppl:S313

Fish Oil Inhib Rat Colon CA: Rat given corn oil incr expression of farnesyl protein transferase which catalyses ras precursors during modification of ras oncoproteins enabling their anchorage to plasma membr. High fish oil reduces FPTase expression. Corn oil causes colon tumors and fish oil decr. Carcinogenesis 1998 Jun;19(6):985-9. Singh J, Amer Health Foundation. Study with rats also found fish oil to have inhib effect on colon CA. Paulson JE, Norway, Pharm Tox 1998 Jan;82:28-33

Fish Oil Protects Against Human Colon CA in Mice: Mice given human colon tumour growth cells incr with coconut oil, olive oil, safflower oil diets but not with fish oil vs. low faat control. Calder PC, Clin Sci (Colch) 1998 Mar; 94(3):303-11, U Southampton. Same finding with Korean study in Nutr Cancer 1998;30(2):118-23 by Kim DY with incr from high corn oil and lowest with fish oil and butter and beef tallow intermediate.

Individuals with +Fam Hx MFA and ALA may Incr: 1993 individuals with colon CA and 2400 controls. No relationship with total fat or type of fat. However, for older women and younger men with +fam hx for colon CA, some incr risk with monosat and linolenic. Slattery, U Utah, Int J Cancer 11/97;73:670

Fish Oil Incr Rat CA: high fish oil and somewhat less with high safflower oil incr # liver metastasis of colon CA cells injected into rats vs low fat diet. Griffini P, U Amsterdam, Cancer Res 1998 Aug 1;58(15):3312-9.

More Adducts with Sunflower Oil: 59 humans fed sunflower or canola oil. More than three times as many adducts formed with the sunflower oil. (engenous formation of DNA adducts of malonaldehyde, a major product of lipid peroxidation). Fang, Carolinska, Carcinogenesis ’96 17:1035