The research shows that meat, especially mammal meat, is bad for the health. It is harmful to the heart, increases several major cancers, increases dementia, and causes some autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis. In contrast, fish, seafood, nuts, beans, peas, and lentils have all been repeatedly found to be healthy sources of protein. Fats are very similar. Mammal fats and transfats are the worst, while canola oil, olive oil, and peanuts oil are the best. Nuts, despite being high in fats, are very healthy, especially the salt free variety.
Alzheimer's: Meat, Mammal Meat Increase Alzheimer's Risk; Fruits & Veggies Good: Case Western University School of Medicine and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio are now saying that a diet rich in fruits and veggies and low in red meat may actually prevent Alzheimer's. Compuserve 7/18/02
Alzheimer's: Meat May Increase Dementia: Small 7th Day Adventist study of 272 found that vegans and vegetarians were less likely than "heavy" meat eaters to develop dementia. RR 2.18 and 2.99 when past meat consumption was taken into consideration. Giem, Neuroepidemiology ‘93;12:28
Alzheimer's: Meat Bad, Veggies Good for Preventing Dementia: Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center in Chicago, examined 815 people aged 65 and older over a four year period. 131 developed AD. People who consumed a lot of saturated fat, found in meat and diary, were 2.3 times more likely to develop symptoms than those whose diet was low in these fats. Conversely, people whose diet contained high levels of unsaturated fat were up to 80% less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than those who consumed low levels of unsaturated fats. 2/18/03 BBC News & Arch Neurol
Cancer: Breast: Beef/Pork Once a Day Increases Risk 56%: In a study of 35,000 British women followed for 7 years, older women who ate one portion a day (57 grams) had a 56% increased risk compared with those who ate none. Those who ate the most processed meat, such as bacon, sausages, ham or meat pies, had a 64% greater risk of breast cancer than those who refrained. Pre-menopausal women had a lower risk. UK does not allow growth hormone for cows or pigs. Janet Cade et al. University of Leeds. British Journal of Cancer 4/07. A US study of 90,000 pre-menopausal women found eating large amounts of red meat doubled young women's breast cancer risk. Having one-and-a-half servings of red meat per day almost doubled the risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer compared to three or fewer per week. Archives of Internal Medicine 11/06.
Cancer: Lymphoma: Animal Products Increase, Vegetables Decrease Risk: Foods high in animal protein, saturated fat, eggs and dairy lead to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), while diets high in dietary fiber -- tomatoes, broccoli, mixed lettuce salad with vegetables, cauliflower, etc.-- were associated with a reduced risk of NHL. 601 Connecticut women, ages 21-84, diagnosed with NHL, using a Food Frequency Questionnaire of the frequency and portion size for 120 foods and beverages were compared to 717 matched controls. Two other studies of American women have similar findings. Tongzhang Zheng. Yale. Amer J Epid. 3/9/04
Cancer of the Colon: Mammal or Bird Meat Increase; Peas, Nuts, & Beans Decrease Colon Cancer: Chicken & fish no better but peas and beans decreased (>twice a week=RR .53) colon cancer in prospective 6 year study of 32,051 7th Day Adventists. Weekly mammal meat increased colon cancer 38% (RR 1.85), Weekly white meat increased it 55% (RR 1.90). Meat four times a week increased the cancer 200%. Increased BMI>25.6 had a high risk RR 2.63 vs. BMI<22.5. Aspirin over once a week had a slightly lower risk RR .83. Lower risk for women who have had at least one child RR .72. Nuts at least weekly had a lower risk RR .67. Pramil Singh, Loma Linda, Am J Epid 10/98 148:761-74. Less than 20% variation in colon caner due to heredity. Antiox vitamins, Calcium, Vit D often found protective. Cruciferous, fruits and legumes reported beneficial. Physical activity, obesity, aspirin use (inverse effect?), cigs may contribute. Nurses’ Study found same with beef, pork, or lamb as a main dish every day was 2.49 (1.24 to 5.03) compared with women reporting consumption less than once a month. physical activity was associated inversely with the risk of large adenomas (= " src="/math/12pt/normal/ges.gif"1 cm) in the distal colon (relative risk 0.57 ). Of 19 published studies of hormonal replacement therapy and risk of colorectal cancer, 10 support an inverse association and a further five show a significant reduction in risk. The risk seems lowest among long term users.
Cancer of the Colon: Fiber and Fish Good; Mammal and Processed Meat Bad: The prospective EPIC cohort study in 23 centres from 10 European countries of 521,468 men and women ages 39-69 years with 24,185 developing cancer, one of the most important results is a protective effect of high fiber intake and fish consumption against colorectal cancer, while high red and processed meat intake increase the risk. Regarding lung cancer the first analyses found a protective effect of fruit intake but no association with vegetable consumption. No association was observed between vegetables and fruit intake and the risk of prostate cancer or breast cancer. According to the food diary a daily intake of 35 g of saturated fats doubles the risk of breast cancer compared to women with daily intake of 10 g or less. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Gonzalez CA. Institut Catala d'Oncologia (ICO), Barcelona, Spain. . Publ Health Nutr 2006 Feb;9(1A):124-6.
Cancers: Meat Bad, Esp Processed Meat; Fiber, Vegetables, Fruit Good: prospective study of 522 000 people in 10 European countries found a "modest" association between cancers of the bowel and stomach and a daily intake of more than 60 g of processed meat. Elio Riboli, WHO, 25 g of fibre a day were 40% less likely to develop bowel cancer than those eating less than 10 g a day. more than 250 g of fruit and vegetables daily had a modest reduction in digestive tract cancers. Prospective study of 38 917 people in Melbourne show that those who ate red meat or pork, or both, more than 10 times a week were 1.8 times more likely to develop bowel cancer during the first 10 years of follow up. Those who ate processed meat more than five times a week were 1.5 times more likely to develop bowel cancer than those eating it no more than once a week. Dallas English, Cancer Council Victoria. BMJ 6/28/02
Cancer: Meat, Smoking, Heavy Beer, Sedentary Work Factors: Prospective study 20yr 35+yo white men found smoking RR 2.6, heavy beer (14/mo) RR 1.9, Meat (over 2/d) RR 1.8, white collar RR 1.7, craft trade in service and trade RR 2.6. Hsing, Int J Cancer 8/98;77:549
Cancer of the Colon: Beef, Pork a Cause: In a cohort of 148,610 adults ages 50-74 and followed for nine years as part of the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, 1667 developed colorectal cancers. Being in the upper third in long-term consumption of beef and pork, including chicken livers and processed meats was associated with a 50% increased risk of distal colon cancer and a 71% increase in the risk of rectal cancer. Long-term consumption of poultry and fish was associated with 13% reduced risk of both proximal and distal colon cancer. Meat Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer. Ann Chao, PhD; Michael J. Thun, et al. JAMA. 2005;293:172-182.
Cancer of the Colon: Bananas Good; Bacon, Butter Increase Colon Cancer: Bangkok case control study= history of bowel polyps (OR = 14.69), parent's history of colon cancer (OR = 4.00), anal abscess (OR = 3.78), chronic colitis (OR = 3.61), chronic hemorrhoid (OR = 3.13) and the frequency of stools every three days or more (OR = 2.16). The results also indicated an increased risk for dietary factors; bacon (OR = 12.49) and butter (OR = 2.68). There was a protective effect provided by banana (OR = 0.54) and papaya (OR = 0.58). Asia Pac J Public Health 1995;8(2):118-22
Cancer of the Colon: Fish Decreases Colon Cancer: Italian study 1125 CA colon, 728 CA rectum, 4154 hosp controls asked 79 food items. Bread and cereals (RR 1.11), but not wholemeal bread (RR .88) slightly increase in colon CA as did refined sugar (RR 1.11). Fish (RR .53), raw and cooked vegetables (RR .79 & .65), and fruits (RR .93) assoc with inverse risk. Franceschi S, Eur J Cancer Prev 1998 May; 7 Suppl 2:S19-23.
Cancer of the Colon: Cheese, Mammal Meat, Butter Increase Colon Cancer; Tomato, Poultry, Peppers, Lettuce Good: Familial colorectal cancer was associated with meal frequency, medical history of diabetes (relative risk, RR = 4.6) and cholelithiasis (RR = 5.2). Significant positive trends of increasing risk with more frequent consumption were observed for pasta (RR = 2.5, for the highest vs the lowest intake tertile), pastries (RR = 2.4), red meat (RR = 2.9), canned meat (RR = 1.9), cheese (RR = 3.5) and butter (RR = 1.9). Significant inverse associations and trends in risk were observed for consumption of poultry (RR = 0.4), tomatoes (RR = 0.2), peppers (RR = 0.3) and lettuce (RR = 0.3). Significant inverse trends in risk with increasing consumption for beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were observed (RR = 0.5 and 0.4), 1584 cases, 2874 controls. Br J Cancer 1997;75(9):1381-4
Cancer: Mothers Eating Meat and Sugar in Pregnancy Increased Risk of Leukemia in Their Infants; Fish, Fruits, Vegetables Reduced the Risk: Because leukemia clone-specific chromosomal abnormalities are present at birth in children who later develop leukemia, the authors did a nationwide case-control study of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) among children ages 12 to 59 months in Greece. Children (n=131) with ALL were matched to control children (n=131) hospitalized for minor conditions. Controlling for total energy intake and possible confounding factors, the risk of ALL in the offspring was 28% lower with increased maternal intake of fruits (OR, 0.72), 24% for increased vegetables (OR, 0.76), and 28% for increased fish and seafood (OR, 0.72), but 32% higher for maternal intake of sugars and syrups (OR, 1.32) and 25% higher for meat and meat products (OR, 1.25). Children of women who tend to consume during their pregnancies what is currently considered to be a healthy diet maybe at lower risk of ALL. Maternal diet and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in young children. Petridou E, et al. Athens University, Greece. . Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Aug;14(8):1935-9.
Cancer: Pancreas: Meat Might Increase Pancreatic Cancer: Diet causes up to 80% of the cancers of the colon, breast, and prostate. Mammal meat, processed meat, and fried meat probably increases colorectal and breast cancer and possibly increase lung prostate and pancreatic cancers, while fruits, veggies, Vit E and C probably help decrease several cancers. J Cummings, Cambridge, BMJ 12/12/98 317:1636-4
Cancer: Pancreas: Beef, Pork, Processed Meat Bad: During 7 years of follow-up, 482 adults developed pancreatic cancers out of 190,545 being followed. The strongest association was with processed meat; those in the highest fifth in daily intake (g/1000 kcal) had a 68% increased risk compared with those in the lowest (p < .01). Both pork and of total red meat were were associated with 50% increases in risk (p < .01). There were no associations of pancreatic cancer risk with intake of poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, total fat, saturated fat, or cholesterol. Intake of total and saturated fat from meat was associated with statistically significant increases in pancreatic cancer risk but that from dairy products was not. Meat and fat intake as risk factors for pancreatic cancer: the multiethnic cohort study. Nothlings U, et al. Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA. . Arthritis Rheum 2003 Nov;48(11):3159-67.
Diabetes: Mammal Meat Causes Diabetes: 37,309 women over 44 in the Women's Health and free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes were followed for 8.8 years. 1,558 developed type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for age, BMI, total energy intake, exercise, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, and family history of diabetes, there were positive associations between intakes of red meat and processed meat and risk of type 2 diabetes. Comparing highest vs. lowest quintile, the relative risks (RRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.28 for red meat (P < 0.001 for trend) and 1.23 for processed meat intake (P = 0.001 for trend). For frequent consumption of total processed meat (RR 1.43, P < 0.001 for trend) including bacon (1.21 for >/=2/week vs. <1/week, P = 0.004 for trend) and hot dogs (1.28 >/=2/week vs. <1/week, P = 0.003 for trend). These results remained significant after further adjustment for intakes of dietary fiber, magnesium, glycemic load, and total fat. Intakes of total cholesterol, animal protein, and heme iron were also significantly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. A prospective study of red meat consumption and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly women: the women's health study. Song Y, Manson JE, Buring JE, Liu S. Harvard-Brigham Women's Diabetes Care. 2004 Sep;27(9):2108-15
Diabetes: Processed Meats Bad: Researchers found a 46% increase in adult-onset DM from eating processed meat five or more times per week: bologna, hot dogs, bacon, etc. Health Professionals Follow-up. Frank Hu, Harvard, Diabetes Care 2/02
Endometriosis: Green Vegetables and Fruit Good; Mammal Meat Bad: In two case-control studies from Northern Italy of 504 women under age 65 with a laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis, compared to women in the lowest tertile of intake, a higher intake of green vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.3 for the highest tertile of intake] and fresh fruit (OR = 0.6) reduced the risk, whereas an increase in risk was associated with high intake of beef and other red meat (OR = 2.0) and ham (OR = 1.8). Consumption of milk, liver, carrots, cheese, fish and whole-grain foods, as well as coffee and alcohol consumption, were not significantly related to endometriosis. Selected food intake and risk of endometriosis. Parazzini F, Chiaffarino F, et al. Universita di Milano, Italy. Hum Reprod. 2004 Aug;19(8):1755-9. Ed: Fortunately, this is exactly the diet that is good in general. Humans should not eat mammal meat since mammals are close relatives and eating close relatives is bad for your health.
Heart: Protein, Fat, Carbs From Non-Meat Sources Good: In 82,802 women in the Nurses' Health Study, during 20 years of follow-up, there were 1994 new cases of coronary heart disease. After multivariate adjustment, the relative risk of coronary heart disease comparing highest and lowest deciles of the low-carbohydrate-diet score was 0.94 (P=0.19). The relative risk comparing highest and lowest deciles of a low-carbohydrate-diet score on the basis of the percentage of energy from carbohydrate, animal protein, and animal fat was 0.94 (P=0.52), whereas the relative risk on the basis of the percentage of energy from intake of carbohydrates, vegetable protein, and vegetable fat was 0.70 (P=0.002). A higher glycemic load was strongly associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (RR highest vs. lowest deciles, 1.90; P=0.003). Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Halton TL, et al. Harvard. New Eng J Med 2006 Nov 9;355(19):1991-2002.
Heart Disease: Meat, Milk, Butter, Pastries Bad for Heart; Legumes, Oils, Vegetables, Alcohol Good: Seven Country Study with 25 year f/u of 12,763 middle-aged men belonging to 16 cohorts in seven countries (USA, Finland, The Netherlands, Italy, former Yugoslavia, Greece and Japan) with periodic evaluation. Population death rates from coronary heart disease showed large differences, ranging from 268 per 1000 in East Finland to 25 per 1000 in Crete, Greece. Increased heart disease factors included butter (R = 0.887), meat (R = 0.645), pastries (R = 0.752), and milk (R = 0.600) consumption. Significant negative correlation coefficients were found for legumes (R = -0.822), oils (R = -0.571), and alcohol (R = -0.609) consumption. Combined vegetable foods (excluding alcohol) were inversely correlated (R = -0.519), whereas combined animal foods (excluding fish) were directly correlated (R = 0.798) with CHD death rates. Eur J Epidemiol 1999 Jul;15(6):507-15. Food intake patterns and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: cross-cultural correlations in the Seven Countries Study. The Seven Countries Study Research Group. Menotti A, Kromhout D, Blackburn H, Fidanza F, Buzina R, Nissinen A. U Minn.
Heart Disease: Meat, Margarine, Poultry Bad; Vegetables, Wine, Whole Grains Good: In a small case-control study of 200 cases of coronary artery disease and 255 controls from the Coronary Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis in Women (CORA) Study, a high score for the dietary pattern of high intakes of meat, margarine, poultry, and sauce and low intakes of vegetarian dishes, wine, vegetables, and whole-grain cereals, after adjustment for known CAD risk factors, the relative risks from the lowest to the highest quintiles of the pattern score were 1.0, 1.1, 3.6, 6.2, and 12.3 (P < 0.0001). A dietary pattern derived to explain biomarker variation is strongly associated with the risk of coronary artery disease. Hoffmann K, Zyriax BC, Boeing H, Windler E. Bergholz-Rehbrucke, Germany. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):633-40
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Risk Increased by Meat and Saturated Fat: In a case-control study of 104 cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis vs. controls, intake of saturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and meat was independently associated with an increased risk of IPF. The multivariate OR for comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile of intake of saturated fatty acids was 6.26 (P = 0.01) and for meat it was 7.19 (P = 0.02). Intake of cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish, eggs and dairy products was not related to the risk. Dietary fat and meat intake and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a case-control study in Japan. Miyake Y, et al. Fukuoka University, Japan. . Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006 Mar;10(3):333-9.
Cooking Method: Well Done Meat Increases Breast Cancer: 273 breast cancer patient surveyed with 657 without cancer selected doneness of meats they ate from photos. Those eating beefsteak, bacon or hamburger cooked very thoroughly had 4.6 times risk of breast cancer probably from heterocyclic amines which cause cancer in animals. Wei Zheng, US. Ca., J Natl Cancer Inst 1998.
Cooking Method: Deep Fried Foods, Red Meat Increase Breast Cancer; Soy Good: Mammal meat and freshwater fish was related to a moderately elevated risk of breast cancer risk. Stratified analyses showed that the positive association with red meat intake was primarily restricted to those who used deep-frying cooking method, particularly among those who deep-fried foods to well-done (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.83 for the highest versus the lowest quintile; P for trend, 0.002). On the other hand, high intake of nonhydrogenated soybean cooking oil was related to a reduced risk of breast cancer among women who never deep-fried animal foods (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.82 for the highest versus the lowest quintile. Study of 1449 Shanghai women with breast cancer and over 1500 controls. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002 Sep;11(9):801-808
Diabetes: Mammal Meat Causes Diabetes: In 38,394 men in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study were free of diabetes, heart disease, and cancer when the study began. During the 12-year follow-up, 1168 men developed type 2 diabetes. The risk of type diabetes was directly related to heme-iron intake from red meat sources (p < 0.001). In contrast, total iron intake, heme-iron intake from non-red meat sources, and blood donations were not associated with diabetes risk. Harvard. Am J Clin Nutr 1/2004;79:70-75.
Fish, Bean Curd, Green-yellow Vegetables & Potato Lower Breast Cancer: A Japanese study of 1118 with breast cancer and 36,944 without found decreasing trends of breast cancer risk were associated with intake of bean curd, green-yellow vegetables, potato or sweet potato, chicken and ham or sausage in premenopausal women, while in postmenopausal women a risk reduction was associated with a more frequent intake of boiled, broiled and/or raw fish. Jpn J Cancer Res 1995 Feb;86(2):146-54
Longevity: Meat: Low Intake Adds 3.6 Years of Life in Meta-Analysis: Review of the 6 studies found the following trends: 1) a very low meat intake was associated with a significant decrease in risk of death in 4 studies, a non-significant decrease in risk of death in the fifth study, and virtually no association in the sixth study; 2) 2 of the studies in which a low meat intake significantly decreased mortality risk also indicated that a longer duration (>/= 2 decades) of adherence to this diet contributed to a significant decrease in mortality risk and a significant 3.6-y (95% CI: 1.4, 5.8 y) increase in life expectancy; and 3) the protective effect of a very low meat intake seems to attenuate after the ninth decade. Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans? Singh PN, Sabate J, Fraser GE. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):526S-532S
Longevity: Meat Bad; Yogurt, Milk, Citrus Good: In a small 5-year follow-up study of just 162 Italian elderly, citrus fruit at least twice a week had an adjusted risk of dying that was half that of individuals who consumed citrus fruit less than once a week [relative risk (RR) = 0.52]. The adjusted RRs of mortality were 0.38 for consumption of milk and yogurt at least three times a week vs. less than once a week; 0.21 for moderate consumption of espresso coffee (1-2 cups weekly) vs. less than once a week; and 0.35 for > 2 cups a week of espresso coffee vs. less than once a week. High levels of intake of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and linoleic acid were associated with 50-60% decreases in mortality risk. High consumption of meat was associated with a much higher risk of mortality (RR = 9.72). Diet and overall survival in a cohort of very elderly people. Fortes C, Forastiere F, Farchi S, Rapiti E, Pastori G, Perucci CA. Epidemiology. 2000 Jul;11(4):440-5. Ed: Data from such a small study is interesting but unreliable. However, other studies confirm most of these findings.
Multiple Sclerosis: Meat Intake in Childhood Major Factor in Multiple Sclerosis: MS patients reported a higher frequency of: 1) tonsillitis; 2) allergic reactions age 15; 3) head trauma below age 16; 4) a predominant meat vs. vegetable diet during childhood. Stratified analysis and logistic regression pointed to "meat predominance" as the most significant risk factor. Study of 177 Moscow patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1996 Dec;94(6):386-94
Multiple Sclerosis: Meat and Dairy Associated with MS in Germany: J Clin Epidemiol 1994 Jan;47(1):43-8. German study found diet and latitude factors.
Multiple Sclerosis: Meat, Whole Milk, and Possibly Potatoes Associated with MS in Croatia: daily consumption of different quantities of full fat unskimmed milk (OR 21.7; chi 2 42.34; LL 7.12), potatoes with lard and fresh or smoked meat (OR 20.7; chi 2 15.52; LL 2.72), and new potatoes (OR 20.7; chi 2 15.52; LL 2.72). 46 pt and 92 controls. Neuroepidemiology 1993;12(4):234-40
Multiple Sclerosis: Pork, Animal Fats Implicated: prevalence rates of multiple sclerosis (MS) in several countries and the corresponding per capita consumption of fat, beef and pork was investigated. A significant correlation was obtained between prevalence of multiple sclerosis and fat intake (r = 0.63, p less than 0.01), total meat intake (r = 0.61, p less than 0.01) and pork consumption (r = 0.87, p less than 0.001). There was no significant correlation with beef consumption. Med Hypotheses 1986 Jul;20(3):279-82
Peptic Ulcers: H Pylori Can Come From Beef and Pork: Undercooked hamburger or beef can pass the ulcer causing bacteria which cows and pigs get from contaminated soil. Chicken meat has much less risk of being contaminated. Anticancer Research 7/02.
Ulcerative Colitis: Meat, Mammal Meat, Eggs, Alcohol Bad: 183 adults with stable ulcerative colitis were followed for one year during which 52% relapsed. Those who ate the most meat (4 oz. or more a day) were three times as likely to relapse as those who ate the least (less than 2 oz.). If this was mammal meat and/or processed meat, patients were five times more likely to relapse. A high intake of animal protein in general, fish, and eggs tripled the risk. Those who drank the most alcohol (more than 2 units a day) were also almost three times as likely to relapse compared with those who drank the least (less than 1 unit a day). Surprisingly, the risk of relapse was not associated with high intake of milk and dairy products, and high levels of dietary fiber did not seem to ward off the risk of relapse either. When the food constituents were assessed, high intakes of sulphur and sulphate were associated with relapse, which could explain the link with red meat and alcohol. The main sources of dietary sulphur are the sulphur amino acids, found in high protein foods, such as mammal meat, cheese, milk, nuts and eggs, and sulphate. Sulphate is found in brassica vegetables, such as broccoli, and is used as a preservative in processed foods, especially bread, beer, sausages, and dried fruit. Many alcoholic drinks also contain sulphate. A high sulphur diet produces hydrogen sulphide, which damages the inner lining of the bowel, making it more 'leaky' and increasing cell turnover, say the authors. Newcastle University, Gut 9/2004.
Uric Acid Levels Reflect Meat Intake: Using data from 14,809 adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the serum uric acid level increased with increasing total meat or seafood intake and decreased with increasing dairy intake. After adjusting for age, the differences in uric acid levels between the extreme quintiles of intake were 0.48 mg/dl for total meat; P < 0.001, 0.16 mg/dl for seafood; P = 0.005, and -0.21 mg/dl for total dairy; P = 0.02. Total protein intake was not associated with the serum uric acid level. Intake of purine-rich foods, protein, and dairy products and relationship to serum levels of uric acid: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Choi HK, Liu S, Curhan G. MGH-Harvard. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jan;52(1):283-9
Alzheimer's: High Fat Diet Increases Dementia: Small study links AD to high fat diet according to healthscout.com. Study with transgenetic mice found linked to hypercholesterolemia. Neurobiol Dis 2000 Aug;7(4):321-331. Dietary cholesterol also accelerates accumulated of amyloid two fold. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000 Apr;903:335-44. Low DHA a risk factor. Lipids 1999;34 Suppl:S245. F2-isoprostanes are prostaglandin-like compounds derived from free radical-catalysed peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Peroxidation of eicosapentaenoic acid produces F3-isoprostanes, whereas peroxidation of docosahexaenoic acid would give F4-isoprostanes. This study demonstrates the presence of esterified F4-isoprostanes in human brain and shows that levels are elevated in certain brain cortex regions in Alzheimer's disease. Our data with Alzheimer's disease suggest that analysis of F4-isoprostanes will provide new opportunities to study lipid peroxidation in the neurodegenerative diseases. J Neurochem 1999 Feb;72(2):734-40. F4-neuroprostanes could be detected in normal human cerebrospinal fluid and levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease (110 12 pg/ml) were significantly higher than age-matched controls (64 8 pg/ml) (p < 0.05). F4-neuroprostanes may provide a unique marker of oxidative injury to the brain and could potentially exert biological activity. Furthermore, the formation of F4-neuroprostane-containing aminophospholipids might adversely effect neuronal function as a result of alterations they induce in the biophysical properties of neuronal membranes. J Biol Chem 1998 May 29;273(22):13605-12
Alzheimer's: Animal Fat, Cholesterol Bad, Fish Good for Preventing Alzheimer's Disease: Prospective Zutphen Elderly Study (n=476) and the Rotterdam Study (n=5,386). Rotterdam Study showed that high intakes associated with an increased risk of dementia after adjustments: total fat (RR=2.4 (95%CI: 1.1-5.2)), saturated fat (RR=1.9 (95%CI: 0.9-4.0)), and cholesterol (RR=1.7 (95%CI: 0.9-3.2)). A high fish consumption, an important source of n-3 PUFAs, reduced the risk of dementia (RR=0.4 (95%CI: 0.2-0.9)). In the Zutphen Elderly Study a high linoleic acid intake was associated with cognitive impairment (OR=1.8 (95%CI: 1.0-3.0)). A high fish consumption tended to be inversely associated with cognitive impairment and decline (RR=0.5, 95%CI: 0.2-1.2). J Nutr Health Aging 2000;4(4):202-207
Alzheimer's: Low Sat Fat/Low Cholesterol Help Prevent Dementia: European J Clinical Nutrition elderly individuals consume a healthy diet less likely to suffer dementia. 1,600 individuals who were 70 or older. food questionnaire and measure their mental function. nutrient intake was measured; each was ranked as having normal mental function or deficits that ranged from mild to moderate to severe. lower risk of cognitive decline for diet that contained a healthy balance of nutrients and was low in saturated fat and cholesterol. Compuserve 1/20/02
Alzheimer's: Fats, Cholesterol, Statins Not Related to Dementia in Rotterdam Study: American Academy of Neurology 12/24/02, dietary intake of fat was not associated with an increased risk of dementia. For this study, more than 5,000 subjects from the Rotterdam Study, a large, population-based study examining risk factors for a variety of diseases among the elderly, were followed for an average of six years by researchers from Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam. Intake of total fat, saturated and trans fats and cholesterol was not associated with an increased risk of dementia. Additionally, intakes of specific fatty acids and/or cholesterol lowering medications were not associated with a reduced risk.
Alzheimer's: Saturated Fats Double Dementia: Rush Institute study found group eating most sat fat had double the risk of AD vs lowest intake. Omega-6 and monounsaturated fats were protective. NIA funded, Arch Neur 2/03
Alzheimer's: Cognitive Decline with Stearic acid and Omega-6; Omega-3 Good: Higher proportions of both stearic acid (saturated, 18:0) and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were associated with greater risk of cognitive decline; the odds ratios were 1.91 (95% CI: 1.16, 3.15) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.44), respectively, for 1-SD differences in fatty acid proportions. Conversely, a higher proportion of total n-3 fatty acids was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline; the odds ratio was 0.59 Cognitive decline and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes--The EVA Study. Heude B, Ducimetiere P, Berr C; EVA Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Apr;77(4):803-8
Heart: Stearic, Palmitic acids, Cheese Linked to Heart Attacks: A Harvard study of 485 heart attack survivors in Costa Rica and matched controls found that the odds ratio (OR) for heart attack for 1% increase in energy from total saturated fat was 1.12 while it was 1.51 for lauric acid+myristic acid, 1.14 for palmitic acid and 2.00 for stearic acid. Although lauric and myristic acids were associated with increased risk of MI, they were consumed in small amounts and most of the saturated fat (87%) came from palmitic and stearic acids, which derived mainly from red meat and fried foods. Consumption of cheese (1-2 vs 0 servings/day) was associated with increased risk of MI (OR=3.07; P <0.0001), while consumption of low-fat milk was not. One-third of the lipids in cocoa butter is stearic acid. Individual saturated fatty acids and nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rica. Kabagambe EK, Baylin A, Siles X, Campos H. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Feb;103(2):215-23
Heart: Butter Fat Raised LDL Most, Beef Fat next, Cocoa Fat Less, and Less Olive Oil: Butter fat raised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations the most (4.23). Beef-tallow feeding resulted in significantly lower concentrations of LDL (4.03); cocoa butter resulted in even lower concentrations (3.82). The lowest concentration of LDL was observed with olive oil (3.62). Effects of fats high in stearic acid on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in men. Denke MA, Grundy SM. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6):1036-40.
Transfats and TV Increase Waistline; Fiber and Exercise Reduce It: In a 9-year (This article got deleted.
Thomas E. Radecki, M.D., J.D.