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Magnesium Research Looks Impressive.

Higher levels of magnesium, either by a better diet or a supplement, have been shown in controlled or epidemiologic studies to help treat or prevent loss of bone mass and teeth, chronic fatigue syndrome, colon and rectal cancers, male coronary artery disease, ADHD, angina, heart arrhythmias, diabetes, fatigue, hearing loss, high blood pressure, kidney stones, migraine headaches, muscle pains, leg cramps, ovarian cancer, PMS, periodontitis, sudden hearing loss, stroke, and sub-arachnoid hemorrhage.  While some of these are just one or two small studies, many are multiple large scale studies.  That's a pretty impressive list and includes two of the leading causes of death, i.e., heart disease and stroke.  Magnesium may be of value for restless leg syndrome but no controlled study has been done.

I recommend everyone take a magnesium tablet of 250 mg once or twice a day. This recommendation increases the intake for the average adult by 100-150%.  For women, magnesium can often be bought more cheaply combined with calcium and vitamin D, but men over age 40 should avoid calcium supplements.  Of course, a healthy diet will add still more magnesium.  This supplement plan will easily put you in the top quarter in magnesium consumption with the many associated health benefits.

Magnesium oxide, the most commonly used supplemental form, is an antacid and in larger doses can also produce a mild laxative effect.  The liquid antacid magnesium hydroxide can decrease the absorption of some medications, especially certain antibiotics and NSAID pain relievers if taken at the same time.  Whether the same occurs with magnesium oxide is not clear to me.  In general, it is best to take magnesium 2 hours before or 4 hours after other medications.  Magnesium may occasionally cause mild loose stools.  The recommended daily intake of 300-400 mg. appears to be a little on the low side.  The average American woman gets 230 mg and man 330 mg/day.

ADHD: Magnesium Said to Help:  In an apparently randomized Polish study of magnesium supplementation for hyperactivity of a group of 75 children ages 7-12 with ADHD and magnesium deficiency, 50 children in addition to standard treatment received a magnesium preparation of 200 mg/day for 6 months. There was a significant increase of magnesium, zinc, and calcium and a decrease of hyperactivity in the group of children treated with magnesium. Among the children given standard treatment without magnesium, hyperactivity has intensified. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):149-56; The same group reported that magnesium deficiency was found in 95% of ADHD children examined, most frequently in hair (78%), in red blood cells (59%) and in blood serum (34%) of children with ADHD. Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):143-8; Ed: This research in not impressive, but magnesium is an excellent supplement for many conditions and appears quite safe.  I would think that it is worth giving, but more research is definitely needed.

ADHD: Magnesium Used in French Report: Magnesium depletion causes hyperexcitability with convulsive seizures in rodents, reversible by magnesium (Mg) treatment. In an extremely poor quality open study of 52 hyperexcitable children erthrocyte Mg(2+) levels were reported low in 30. Combined Mg(2+)/vitamin B6 supplementation (100 mg/day) for 3 to 24 weeks restored normal ERC-Mg values. The authors claim that in all patients, symptoms of hyperexcitability (physical aggressivity, instability, scholar attention, hypertony, spasm, myoclony) were reduced after 1 to 6 months treatment. Other family members shared similar symptoms, had low ERC-Mg values, and also responded clinically to increased Mg(2+)/vitamin B6 intakes. Magnesium VitB6 intake reduces central nervous system hyperexcitability in children. Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, et al. Nimes, France. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):545S-548S. Ed: The claims of dramatic cause-effect benefit in such a loosely designed study are embarassing.  This French study makes me think better of Poland, the country of my ancestors.

ADHD: Magnesium Used in Russian Report:In a Russian study of 51 ADHD children, ages 6-11, magnesium levels were found to be moderately decreased in plasma and erythrocytes. Mg2+ -ATPase activity was also reduced. No  changes of calcium or sodium homeostasis were detected in cells. A MAGNE-B6 drug, when used in the complex therapy of ADHS, normalized the magnesium homeostasis, enhanced the large and small motility, attention, psychic stability and EEG parameters, and reduced anxiety. Diagnostic value of examination of the magnesium homeostasis in children with attention deficit hyperactive syndrome. Klin Lab Diagn. 2005 May;(5):17-9. Ed: This was apparently not a controlled study, so should be given little consideration other than to show doctors in yet another country are using magnesium for ADHD.

Aging: The mutation of mitochondrial DNA can occur in both aging and Mg deficiency, resulting in peroxidation, intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation and apoptosis. The capability against peroxidation decreases in aging and Mg deficiency. DNA polymerase I, RNA polimerase and DNA helicase require Mg for their activities. Under Mg deficiency the replication, transcription and translation of DNA become erroneous. The dysfunctions of vascular endothelial cell occur in aging and Mg deficiency. In comparison between adult and old rats using the rings of rat thoracic aortae, vasorelaxation by acetylcholine and isoproterenol is lower in old rats, but can be improved through high Mg concentration. Although women with menopause are suffered from osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, bone fragility increases with additive Mg deficiency. High Ca intake is recommended for women with menopause, but adequate Mg intake is necessary to lower dietary Ca/Mg ratio, because the high ratio prompts blood coagulation. About lipid metabolism Mg can play a statin-like activity. Mg deficiency is complicated with lifestyle-related diseases, osteoporosis, bone fragility, depression and elderly dementia. Aging and magnesium. Saito N, et al. Miyazaki Medical Center Hospital. Clin Calcium 2005 Nov;15(11):29-36.

Asthma Helped Slightly by Magnesium Supplement: In an Hungarian DB PC study of 89 asthmatic children ages 4-16, half were given 200-260 mg/day of magnesium citrate (lower dose in those under age 7). At 8 and 12 weeks, there was a 7% decrease in the number of doses of bronchodilators used by the magnesium group. Urinary magnesium excretion in asthmatic children receiving magnesium supplementation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Bede O, Suranyi A, Pinter K, Szlavik M, Gyurkovits K. Magnes Res. 2003 Dec;16(4):262-70. Ed: While the benefit is small, the cost is very low and totally without side-effects. More studies show that magnesium sulfate aerosols help relieve asthma attacks.

Asthma: Inhaled and IV Magnesium Sulfate Both Helped Acute Asthma: Intravenous MgSO(4) has been shown helpful during acute exacerbation of asthma. In a review of 6 DB studies of inhaled MgSO(4) with beta(2)-agonist to beta(2)-agonist and two studies compared MgSO(4) to beta(2)-agonist alone, the magnesium significantly helped pulmonary function in addition to beta(2)-agonist (SMD: 0.30; 4 studies); however, hospitalizations were only a non-significant trend in favor of the magnesium (RR: 0.69; 3 studies). Benefits were strongest for severe asthma.

Bone Mass: Magnesium Helped Bone Density in Girls: In a 1-year DB PC study of 120 healthy girls ages 8-14, 300 mg/day of magnesium significantly increased bone mineral density in hip bones (P = 0.05) and was safe and well tolerated. A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls. Carpenter TO, et al. Yale. . J Clin Endocrin Metab 2006 Dec;91(12):4866-72.

Bone Mass Helped by Magnesium, Potassium, Alcohol, Fruits, Vegetables: A new University of Surrey study found that higher intakes of magnesium, potassium, and alcohol were associated with higher total bone mass, and a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Jan;71(1):142

Brain: Mg Helped in Closed Head Trauma in Rats: M

Cancer: Colon and Rectal: Magnesium Intake May Protect Against: Using data from the 14.8-year follow-up Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population-based prospective study of 61,433 women ages 40 to 75 and the 805 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed, there was a strong inverse association of magnesium intake with the risk of colorectal cancer (P= .006). Compared with women in the lowest fifth of magnesium intake, the multivariate rate ratio (RR) was 0.59 for those in the highest fifth or 41% lower. This was true for both colon (RR, 0.66) and rectal cancer (RR, 0.45). Magnesium intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in women. Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. JAMA. 2005 Jan 5;293(1):86-9 

Canker Sores: Magnesium-Citrus Oil Tablet Helped Canker Sores Somewhat: In a DB PC study of a new mucoadhesive tablet, which releases citrus oil and magnesium, half of 248 volunteers who had canker sores and were given the active tablet did better. Adhesive tablet effective for treating canker sores in humans. Mizrahi B, Golenser J, Wolnerman JS, Domb AJ., the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. J Pharm Sci. 2004 Sep 29;93(12):2927-2935 

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Magnesium IM Helped: 20 patients with CFS had lower red cell magnesium concentrations than did 20 healthy controls. When 32 patients with CFS were randomly allocated either to intramuscular magnesium sulphate every week for 6 weeks or to placebo, 80% felt better with the magnesium vs. 18% with placebo. Magnesium levels returned to normal in treated by not in placebo. Lancet. 1991 Mar 30;337(8744):757-60. Ed: I see no reason why oral magnesium at 250 mg twice a day would work just as well.

Constipation: Lowest Magnesium Linked to Somewhat More Constipation: In a study of 3835 female dietetic students ages 18-20, the prevalence of functional constipation was 26%. Neither dietary fiber intake nor intakes of total water and water from fluids were associated with constipation. Conversely, low intake of water from foods was associated with an increasing prevalence of constipation. Low magnesium intake was associated with increasing prevalence of constipation. Compared with women in the quintile with the lowest intake, all other quintiles had at least 20% less constipation (P =0.09). Association between dietary fiber, water and magnesium intake and functional constipation among young Japanese women. Murakami K, et al. Tokyo, Japan. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition December 6, 2006,

Coronary Heart Disease Decreased in Male Health Professionals by Magnesium: In the Harvard 39,000 male health professional study during 12 years of follow-up, there were 1,021 non-fatal heart attacks, and 428 fatal ones. The age-adjusted relative risk (RR) of developing CHD in the highest quintile (median intake = 457 mg/day) compared with the lowest quintile (intake = 269 mg/day) was 0.73 (p <0.0001). After controlling for standard CHD risk factors and dietary factors, the RR was 0.82 (p = 0.08), i.e., an 18% decrease in heart attacks. For supplemental magnesium intake, the RR comparing the highest quintile to non-supplement users was 0.77. Magnesium intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. Al-Delaimy WK, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Feb;23(1):63-70

Coronary Heart Disease No Decreased in Female Health Professionals: In a 10-year follow-up of 39,876 female health professionals ages 39-89, comparing the highest quintile of magnesium intake (median 433 mg/day) with the lowest quintile (median 255 mg/day), the relative risks were 0.87 (p = 0.24) for total CVD, 0.88 (p = 0.34) for coronary heart disease (CHD), 1.03 (p = 0.96) for nonfatal MI, 1.11 (p = 0.95) for CVD death, and 0.87 (p = 0.55) for total stroke. Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Women. Song Y, et al. Harvard. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Oct 15;96(8):1135-1141. Ed: I was surprised by this outcome. Heart disease is much lower in women under age 65 than men. Also, my recommended 250 mg of Mg twice a day would put a person around 800 mg/day or at the highest end of the upper quintile. Elderly, especially vegan vegetarians, were lower in Mg in a recent Taiwan national study.

Coronary Artery Disease Increased 150% by Low Magnesium Intake: The 7,172 men in the Honolulu Heart Program had a baseline average daily dietary magnesium intake of 268 mg, with a range of 50.3 to 1,138 mg. During 30 years of follow-up, 1431 cases of coronary heart disease were identified. Within 15 years of baseline dietary assessment, the age-adjusted incidence of such disease fell significantly in those with the highest daily magnesium intake (340 mg or more) compared to those with the lowest (186 mg or less) or an incidence of 4.0 per 1000 person-years versus 7.3 per 1000 person-years. After adjustment for a variety of other elements, including nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors, the excess risk in those with the lowest intake ranged from 1.5 to 1.8-fold. Robert D. Abbott, University of Virginia. Am J Cardiol 2003;92:665-669

Coronary Artery Disease: Magnesium Supplementation Helps Heart: Studies indicate an association between magnesium deficiency and a poor prognostic outcome in patients who have had myocardial infarction. It therefore appears to be a reasonable prophylactic measure to monitor closely magnesium status in patients with coronary heart disease and other patients at risk of acute myocardial infarction, and to supplement with magnesium chloride when clinically necessary. In addition, recent studies provide supportive evidence that supplementation of magnesium chloride may reduce the incidence of fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias after an infarct. Case Western, Am J Cardiol 1989 Apr 18;63(14):35G

Coronary Artery Disease: Magnesium Supplement Helps Blocked Coronaries: An LA study of magnesium supplement found that it increased blood flow and lengthened exercise tolerance in DB study of patients with blocked coronaries. Circ 2000;102:2353

Coronary Artery Disease Helped by Magnesium in DB: In a DB PC study of 181 patients with half on 365 mg/day of magnesium, researchers found not just improved endothelium with the magnesium but also improved exercise tolerance with a decrease in chest pain and improved quality of life. Effects of oral magnesium therapy on exercise tolerance, exercise-induced chest pain, and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Shechter M, Bairey Merz CN, Stuehlinger HG, Slany J, Pachinger O, Rabinowitz B. Am J Cardiol. 2003 Mar 1;91(5):517-21.

Coronary Artery Disease: Ventricular Arrhythmia in Heart Failure Helped by IV Magnesium Supplementation: Hypomagnesemia is very common in heart failure: 38% were found too low and 72% were losing too much. A DB study found benefit from magnesium supplementation for those too low. Hypomagnesemia in heart failure with ventricular arrhythmias. Beneficial effects of magnesium supplementation. Ceremuzynski L, Gebalska J, Wolk R, Makowska E. Warsaw. J Intern Med. 2000 Jan;247(1):78-86

Coronary Artery Disease: Magnesium Helped After Coronary Bypass & Reperfusion Studies: Atrial fibrillation is quite common after coronary by-pass surgery. In a DB PC study of 220 patients, half were given a large IV bolus of magnesium supplement after surgery. There were a small decrease in atrial fibrillation on the first day only. The efficacy of supplemental magnesium in reducing atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Hazelrigg SR, Boley TM, Cetindag IB, Moulton KP, Trammell GL, Polancic JE, Shawgo TS, Quin JA, Verhulst S. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004 Mar;77(3):824-30; Magnesium sulfate as an adjunct to primary coronary intervention showed favorable functional outcomes in a DB PC study of 180 patients with AMI undergoing reperfusion. Circ J. 2004 Jan;68(1):23-8

Coronary Artery Disease: Low Magnesium Associated with More Heart Disease: In a prospective study of 13,922 adults free of coronary heart disease (CHD), serum levels of magnesium were inversely proportional to the risk of developing CHD. However, higher dietary intake of magnesium did not correlate with a lower risk of CHD. Liao, American Heart Journal 9/98.

Coronary Artery Disease: Inflammation Markers Lower with Higher Magnesium: In a cross-sectional study of 657 women from the Nurses' Health Study cohort ages 43-69 and free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes mellitus, magnesium intake was inversely associated with plasma concentrations of CRP (P = 0.003), E-selectin (P = 0.001), and sICAM-1 (P = 0.03). After further adjustment for physical activity, smoking status, alcohol use, postmenopausal hormone use, and body mass index, dietary magnesium intake remained inversely associated with CRP and E-selectin. Multivariate-adjusted geometric means for women in the highest quintile of dietary magnesium intake were 24% lower for CRP (P = 0.03) and 14% lower for E-selectin (P = 0.01) than those for women in the lowest quintile. These are markers of systematic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Magnesium intake and plasma concentrations of markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in women. Song Y, et al. Harvard. Am J Clin Nutr 2007 Apr;85(4):1068-74.

Depression: Theory of Mg for Depression: Magnesium deficiency is well known to produce neuropathologies. Only 16% of the magnesium found in whole wheat remains in refined flour, and magnesium has been removed from most drinking water supplies, setting a stage for human magnesium deficiency. Magnesium ions regulate calcium ion flow in neuronal calcium channels, helping to regulate neuronal nitric oxide production. In magnesium deficiency, neuronal requirements for magnesium may not be met, causing neuronal damage which could manifest as depression. Case histories are presented showing rapid recovery (less than 7 days) from major depression using 125-300 mg of magnesium (as glycinate and taurinate) with each meal and at bedtime. Magnesium was found usually effective for treatment of depression in general use. Related and accompanying mental illnesses in these case histories including traumatic brain injury, headache, suicidal ideation, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, postpartum depression, cocaine, alcohol and tobacco abuse, hypersensitivity to calcium, short-term memory loss and IQ loss were also benefited. Dietary deficiencies of magnesium, coupled with excess calcium and stress may cause many cases of other related symptoms including agitation, anxiety, irritability, confusion, asthenia, sleeplessness, headache, delirium, hallucinations and hyperexcitability, with each of these having been previously documented. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Eby GA, et al. Austin, TX. . Med Hypothesis 2006;67(2):362-70.

Depression: Magnesium Depletion Causes Depression-Like Disorder in Mice: Singewalde, et al. Innsbruck. Neuropharmacology. 2004 Dec;47(8):1189-97

Depression: Magnesium Attenuates Post-traumatic Depression/anxiety Following Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats. Fromm L, et al. University of Adelaide. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):529S-533S

Depression: Magnesium Reduces Hippocampal Tissue Loss after Brain Trauma in the rat. Browne KD, et al. University of Pennsylvania. J Neurosci Res. 2004 Sep 15;77(6):878-83. Ed: Recent studies have found that the hippocampus is damaged by untreated depression.

Diabetes: Magnesium Helps Lower Glucose in DB Studies: In a meta-analysis of the  nine randomized double-blind controlled trials with a total of 370 patients with Type 2 diabetes and of duration 4-16 weeks, the median dose of oral magnesium supplementation was 360 mg/day. After a median duration of 12 weeks, fasting glucose was lower in the treatment groups compared to placebo P = 0.02]. The difference in post-intervention HbA(1c) between magnesium and placebo had a non-significant but favorable trend [-0.31% P = 0.10]. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials. Song Y, et al. . Diabet Med 2006 Oct;23(10):1050-6.

Diabetes Lowered by Magnesium in Diet: Long-term Harvard studies of 85,060 women and 42,872 men who had no history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline with 18 years of follow-up in women and 12 years in men found 4,085 and 1,333 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, respectively. After adjusting for age, BMI, physical activity, family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, and history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia at baseline, the relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes was 0.66 in both groups when comparing the highest with the lowest quintile (one fifth) of total magnesium intake, i.e., a 34% decrease in the risk of developing diabetes. The RRs remained significant after additional adjustment for dietary variables, including glycemic load, polyunsaturated fat, trans fat, cereal fiber, and processed meat in the multivariate models. The inverse association persisted in subgroup analyses according to BMI, physical activity, and family history of diabetes. Major food sources of magnesium include whole grains, nuts, and green leafy vegetables, each of which has individually been associated with lower death rates. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Lopez-Ridaura R, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Hu FB. Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan;27(1):134-40. Also, Ruy Lopez-Ridaura, Harvard. Diabetes Care. 2003;27:134-140,59-65,270-271

Diabetes Type 2 Lowered by Magnesium: A 6-year follow-up study of 12,000 men found that the sextile (1/6) with highest blood magnesium had half the level of DM as that with the lowest level although no impact of magnesium in the diet was found. Johns Hopkins. Arch Intern Med 1999 Oct 11;159

Diabetes Type 2 Lower with Whole Grains, Cereal Fibers, Dietary Magnesium: However, refined grains, glycemic index, fruits and vegetables had no impact. Prospective 6 year follow-up Iowa study of 36,000 women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Apr;71(4):921-30

Diabetes Type 2 Helped by Magnesium Supplement in DB: In a DB study of 63 diabetic patients, magnesium supplementation lowered glucose, HbA(1c) (8.0 vs. 10.1), and increased insulin sensitivity. Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: A randomized double-blind controlled trial. Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F. Diabetes Care. 2003 Apr;26(4):1147-52

Diabetes: Magnesium Helps Insulin Resistance in Pre-Diabetics: In a 3-month DB PC study of non-diabetic insulin resistant subjects with hypomagnesemia (<0/74 mmol/l) using magnesium chloride (MgCl2) 2.5 g daily, magnesium-supplemented subjects significantly increased their serum magnesium levels (0.61 to 0.81 mmol/l, p<0.0001) and reduced insuliin resistance hypoHOMA-IR index (4.6 to 2.6, p<0.0001), whereas control subjects did not. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Guerrero-Romero F, Tamez-Perez H, Gonzalez-Gonzalez G, Salinas-Martinez A, Montes-Villarreal J, Trevino-Ortiz J, Rodriguez-Moran M. Mexico. Diabetes Metab. 2004 Jun;30(3):253-8 

Diabetes: Magnesium Helped Diabetics in Very Small Study: Magnesium 300 mg/day in the form of mineral water was given to nine mild type 2 diabetic patients for 30 days. Fasting serum immunoreactive insulin level decreased significantly ( p < 0.05). There was a marked decrease of the triglyceride levels after supplementation. The patients with hypertension showed significant reduction of systolic (p < 0.01), diastolic (p = 0.0038), and mean (p < 0.01) blood pressure. Clinical efficacy of magnesium supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes. Yokota K, Kato M, et al. Jikei University , Japan. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):506S-509S

Diabetes: Lower Magnesium Associated with More Kidney Deterioration: In a retrospective study of 550 DM2 patients without known kidney disease with 5-year follow-up, lower [Mg2+] groups had significantly worse deterioration of serum creatinine after controlling for other factors. A trend for worse proteinuria based on routine urinary analysis was observed among patients belonging to the lowest [Mg2+] group. Lower serum magnesium levels are associated with more rapid decline of renal function in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Pham PC, et al. UCLA Medical Center. . Clin Nephrol. 2005 Jun;63(6):429-36.

Diabetes: In a 4-year follow-up study of 36,787 adults ages 40-69 without diabetes, 365 developed diabetes. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest fourth in consumption of white bread vs. the lowest was 1.37 (P = 0.001), intake of carbohydrate (OR per 200 g/day 0.58), sugars (OR per 100 g/day 0.61), and magnesium (OR per 500 mg/day 0.62) were inversely associated with incidence of diabetes, whereas intake of starch (OR per 100 g/day 1.47) and dietary Glycemic Index (OR per 10 units 1.32) were positively associated with diabetes. These relationships were lessened by adjustment for BMI and waist-to-hip ratio. Glycemic index and dietary fiber and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Hodge AM, English DR, et al. Melbourne, Australia. Diabetes Care. 2004 Nov;27(11):2701-6 

Diabetes: Magnesium, Especially Whole Grains, Reduced Risk 31%: In an 8-year follow-up prospective cohort study including 41,186 participants of the Black Women's Health Study without a history of diabetes, there were 1,964 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of intake was 0.69 (P <0.0001) for dietary magnesium and 0.86 (P = 0.01) for dietary calcium. After mutual adjustment, the association for calcium disappeared. Daily consumption of low-fat dairy (0.87 P = 0.04) and whole grains (0.69 P <0.0001) were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared with a consumption less than once a week. After mutual adjustment, the hazard ratio was 0.81 (P = 0.02) for magnesium and 0.73; P <0.0001) for whole grains. Dietary calcium and magnesium, major food sources, and risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. black women. van Dam RM, et al.  . Diabetes Care 2006 Oct;29(10):2238-43.

Diabetes: Magnesium and Calcium Increase Insulin Sensitivity: Using data from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study for 1,036 US adults without diabetes with 5 years of follow-up, no association was found between dairy intake and insulin sensitivity (p=0.41); however, associations were positive for magnesium and calcium intake (p=0.016) after adjusting for demographic, nondietary lifestyle and dietary factors, and food groups. Furthermore, magnesium intake was associated with insulin sensitivity in a threshold fashion, with a Bayesian method-estimated threshold (325 mg). Dairy, magnesium, and calcium intake in relation to insulin sensitivity: approaches to modeling a dose-dependent association. Ma B, et al. University of South Carolina. . Am J Epidem 2006 Sep 1;164(5):449-58.

Diabetes: Higher Magnesium Associated with Better Insulin Status: In a cross-sectional study of 2707 adults without diabetes from the Framingham Offspring cohort, after adjustment for potential confounding factors, magnesium intake was inversely associated with fasting insulin (mean: 29.9 vs 26.7 muU/mL in the lowest vs highest quintiles of magnesium intake; P <0.001), post-glucose challenge plasma insulin (86.4 vs 72 muU/mL; P <0.001), and HOMA-IR (7.0 vs 6.2; P <0.001). No significant association was found between magnesium intake and fasting glucose or 2-hour post challenge glucose. Improved insulin sensitivity may be one mechanism by which higher dietary magnesium intake may reduce the risk of developing type 2 DM. Magnesium intake is related to improved insulin homeostasis in the framingham offspring cohort. Rumawas ME, et al. . J Am Coll Nutr 2006 Dec;25(6):486-92.

Diabetes: Low Magnesium Very Common: In a study of 290 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Mg levels were significantly reduced in patients with low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides values, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, microalbuminuria and clinical proteinuria. Hypomagnesemia was highly prevalent in our study population (49%). After adjusting for potential confounders, plasma triglycerides (OR = 4.71), waist circumference (OR = 2.21), microalbuminuria (OR = 2.43) and clinical proteinuria (OR = 2.04) were independently associated with hypomagnesemia. Serum ionized magnesium levels in relation to metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. Corica F, et al. University of Messina, Italy. J Am Coll Nutr 2006 Jun;25(3):210-5.

Diabetes: Higher Magnesium Intake Reduced Risk of Metabolic Syndrome 31%: In a 15-year follow-up study of 4637 Americans, ages 18-30, who were free from metabolic syndrome and diabetes at baseline, 608 developed metabolic syndrome. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of magnesium intake, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of metabolic syndrome for participants in the highest quartile was 0.69 or 31% less common (P <0.01). Magnesium intake was also inversely related to individual component of the metabolic syndrome and fasting insulin levels. Magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome among young adults. He K, et al. Northwestern University. . Circ 2006 Apr 4;113(13):1675-82.

Diabetes: Magnesium Lower in Study: In the cross-sectional cohort study of 485 African American and Hispanic adults in New York City, those with diabetes had significantly (p < 0.001) lower serum concentrations of Mg (0.80 mmol/L) compared to the normal group (0.84 mmol/L). Serum magnesium and type-2 diabetes in african americans and hispanics: a new york cohort. Chambers EC, et al.  .. J Am Coll Nutr 2006 Dec;25(6):509-13.

Diabetes: Low Magnesium Associated with Later Kidney Deterioration: In a study of 550 adult diabetics with a follow-up of 63 months, those with lower Mg had significantly  faster renal function deterioration rate. Lower serum magnesium levels are associated with more rapid decline of renal function in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Pham PC, et al. UCLA Medical Center. . Clin Nephrol 2005 Jun;63(6):429-36.

Diuretics Lower Magnesium: Thiazide-like diuretics cause an increased excretion of magnesium in the urine. Low magnesium levels have been associated with cardiac arrhythmias, neuromuscular changes, and increases in lipoprotein levels. About 15% of diuretic users had persistently lower magnesium levels on two samples approximately four months apart. The serum magnesium level was not correlated with the serum potassium level. Am J Epidemiol 1985 Dec;122(6):1045-59 

Eclampsia and Pre-Eclampsia Best Treatment with Magnesium Sulphate: Numerous DB PC studies have shown that magnesium sulphate reduces the risk of eclampsia for pregnant women with pre-eclampsia by 59%. For treatment of eclampsia, magnesium sulphate lowers the risk of maternal death by 41% and of recurrence of further seizures by 56% compared to diazepam. Magnesium sulphate also reduces the risk of further seizures by 69% compared to phenytoin. Evidence and practice: the magnesium sulphate story. Duley L. Oxford, UK. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2005 Feb;19(1):57-74.

Eclampsia: Mag Sulfate May Do More Harm Than Good: The author says, "Intravenous magnesium sulfate tocolysis remains a North American anomaly. This therapy rose to prominence based on poor science and the recommendations of authorities." One Cochrane review concluded that magnesium sulfate is ineffective, finding no benefit in preventing preterm or very preterm birth. The risk of total pediatric mortality was significantly higher for infants exposed to magnesium sulfate (relative risk 2.8). He favors calcium channel blockers, such as nifedipine. Magnesium sulfate tocolysis: time to quit. Grimes DA, et al. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. . Obstet Gynecol 2006 Oct;108(4):986-9.

Fatigue Helped by Magnesium Supplement: Supplement of 10 mg/kg/d helped (700 mg/d for the average man or three standard tablets a day). Also, the article refers to studies with magnesium supplements having helped neuropsychiatric, ischemic heart disease, asthma, and diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 19:374-82, 2000, Brussels.

Fatigue: Too Little Magnesium Uses More Energy, Raises Heart Rate, People Tire More Quickly: During moderate activity, those with low magnesium levels in muscle are likely to use more energy—and therefore to tire more quickly. 10 postmenopausal women ate a controlled diet adequate in magnesium for 35 days, then a low-magnesium diet for 93 days, then a diet adequate in magnesium for 49 days with testing after each. After consuming the low-magnesium diet, they showed an overall loss of magnesium. They had lowered muscle levels of magnesium, and their red blood cells were at the low end of the normal range. During the low-magnesium-status phase, the volunteers used more oxygen during physical activity, and their heart rates increased by about 10 beats per minute. Lukaski, Nielsen, Grand Forks, ND, May 2002, Journal of Nutrition. The body stores about half its magnesium inside the cells of tissues and organs. The other half is combined with calcium and phosphorus inside bones. 1% circulates within the blood at a constant level. Too little magnesium makes the body work harder. The Recommended Dietary Allowance for women over age 31 is 320 mg daily and for men 420 mg daily. 

Hearing Loss: Magnesium Helped Sudden Hearing Loss: In a DB PC study of 28 patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss, those given magnesium and steroids had significantly more hearing improvement that those on steroids alone. Magnesium is a useful for the improvement in hearing, especially in the low-tone range, in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Magnesium treatment has been repeatedly shown to reduce the incidence of both temporary and permanent noise-induced hearing loss. Magnesium treatment for sudden hearing loss. Nageris BI, Ulanovski D, Attias J. Rabin Medical Center, Israel. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2004 Aug;113(8):672-5.

Hearing Loss: Magnesium Reduces Noise Induced Hearing Loss: Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the major causes of hearing loss and tinnitus, particularly in industrial environments. The efficacy of magnesium, administered either to prevent or to treat NIHL has been demonstrated in several studies in animals and in humans. Magnesium, which easily crosses the hematocochlear barrier, presents neuroprotective and vasodilatory effects, and thus, is able to limit the cochlear damage. Magnesium therapy in acoustic trauma. Sendowski I. La Tronche, France. . Magnesium Res 2006 Dec;19(4):244-54.

Heart: Helped Heart Bypass Surgery Recovery: In a DB PC study of 350 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery, or both, magnesium sulfate to increase plasma levels 1(1/2) to 2 times normal during cardiopulmonary bypass found 1% in the magnesium vs. 3% in the placebo group had strokes (P = .4). Neurologic score was worse postoperatively in both groups (P < .0001); however, magnesium group patients performed better than placebo group patients (P = .0001), who had prolonged declines in short-term memory and reemergence of primitive reflexes. Three-month neuropsychologic performance and depression inventory score were generally better than preoperatively, with few differences between groups (P > .6); however, older age (P = .0006), previous stroke (P = .003), and lower education level (P = .0007) were associated with worse performance. Magnesium as a neuroprotectant in cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial. Bhudia SK, et al. Cleveland Clinic. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2006 Apr;131(4):853-61.

Heart: Ectopic Beats: Low Magnesium Increases Ectopic Beats and Irritability: 22 postmenopausal women, aged 47 to 78, with a diet of conventional foods containing either less than half or more than the RDA for magnesium of 320 mg daily. All volunteers ate both controlled diets—each for 81 days. When the women ate a diet containing just 40 percent of the RDA for magnesium, they showed signs of magnesium depletion and experienced small increases in ectopic heartbeats and increased myocardial irritability. People who live in soft-water areas, who use diuretics, or who are predisposed to magnesium loss or ectopic beats may require more dietary magnesium than would others. Leslie M. Klevay, David B. Milne, March 2002 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Heart Failure: Magnesium Supplementation Helped in Very Small Study: In a 3-month DB PC study of 22 chronic heart failure patients, 800 mg oral magnesium oxide (250 mg twice a day) resulted in improved small arterial compliance at 3 months. Acute and chronic oral magnesium supplementation: effects on endothelial function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Fuentes JC, et al. Oak Lawn, IL. Congest Heart Fail 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):9-13.

Heart: Torsades de Pointes Arrhythmia: Magnesium Supplementation Helps: Saldanha Aoki M, Rodriguez Amaral Almeida AL, Navarro F, Bicudo Pereira Costa-Rosa LF, Pereira Bacurau RF. Ann Nutr Metab. 2004;48(2):90-4. Ed: This suggests that patients on ziprasidone (Geodon) should take magnesium just to be on the safe side. Of course, I recommend magnesium 250 mg once or twice a day for everyone.

Heart: Torsades de Pointes in Children: Intravenous magnesium sulphate is a very effective and safe treatment for torsades de pointes associated with acquired long QT syndrome in adults. In a study of six children with congenital or acquired torsades, IV magnesium was effective with optimal bolus dosage, infusion rates and SMg concentrations of 3 to 12 mg/kg, 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg/hr and 3 to 5 mg/dL, respectively. Optimal administration dosage of magnesium sulfate for torsades de pointes in children with long QT syndrome. Hoshino K, Ogawa K, Hishitani T, et al. Saitama Children's Medical Center, Japan. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):497S-500S

High Blood Pressure Helped by Magnesium in DB Studies: Meta-analysis of 20 studies found magnesium supplements lowered diastolic and systolic by only 1 mmHg but higher doses (e.g. 100 mg/day vs. 250 mg/day (10 mmol)) had a considerably larger effect but needs more research. The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Jee SH, Miller ER 3rd, Guallar E, Singh VK, Appel LJ, Klag MJ. Korea. Am J Hypertens. 2002 Aug;15(8):691-6. 

High Blood Pressure: Magnesium Small Beneficial Effect in Epidemiologic Study: In a study of 28,349 female health professionals 45 or older in the Women's Health Study, who initially reported normal blood pressure, after 9.8 years of follow-up, 8,544 developed hypertension. After adjustment for age, magnesium intake was inversely associated with the risk for developing hypertension; women in the highest quintile (median 434 mg/day) had a 13% decreased risk for hypertension (p <0.0001) compared with those in the lowest quintile (median 256 mg/day). In the fully adjusted model, the decrease was only 7% (p = 0.03). Dietary magnesium intake and risk of incident hypertension among middle-aged and older US women in a 10-year follow-up study. Song U, et al. Harvard. . Am J Cardiol 2006 Dec 15;98(12):1616-21. Ed: The differences in intake were small. Supplementation with 250 mg/day would boost the average nurse in the lowest category to above average for the highest group with perhaps an even more beneficial effect.

High Blood Pressure: Obesity, Salt, Low Exercise, Low Potassium, and Low Magnesium Causes: In a review of risk factors on blood pressure by meta-regression analysis of randomized trials, published between 1966 and March 2001 in nationwide surveys in the five countries, being overweight made the largest contribution to hypertension, between 11% (Italy) and 25% (USA), 5-13% for physical inactivity, 9-17% for high sodium intake, 4-17% for low potassium intake and 4-8% for low magnesium intake. The impact of alcohol was small (2-3%), for inadequate intake of calcium (2-8%), coffee (0-9%) and fish fatty acids (3-16%). Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations. Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Eur J Public Health. 2004 Sep;14(3):235-9.

Kidney Stones Lower with Magnesium: Other studies show lower kidney stones with more calcium and more potassium. This follow-up study of 27,000 Finnish men found a 48% lower risk (RR = .52) for kidney stones for men in highest quintile vs. the lowest of magnesium consumption. Finland. Am J Epidemiol 1999 Jul 15

Kidney Stones: Magnesium, Potassium, Fluid Help Prevent: In an average of 10 years of follow-up of 45,619 men without a history of kidney stones, there were a total of 1473 symptomatic kidney stones documented. For men under age 60, but not for those over 60, the multivariate relative risk (RR) for stone formation in the highest fifth of dietary calcium as compared with the lowest quintile was 0.69, a 31% decrease (P = 0.01). The multivariate RR for 1000 mg or greater of vitamin C per day vs. less than 90 mg/d was 1.41, a 41% increase (P = 0.01). Other dietary factors showed the following multivariate RR among men in the highest quintile of intake compared with those in the lowest: magnesium, 0.71 (P = 0.01), a 29% decrease; potassium, 0.54 (P <0.001), a 46% decrease; and fluid, 0.71 (P < 0.001), a 29% decrease. Animal protein was associated with risk only in men with a body mass index <25 kg/m(2) (RR, 1.38; P = 0.03). Sodium, phosphorus, sucrose, phytate, vitamin B(6), vitamin D, and supplemental calcium were not independently associated with risk. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: new insights after 14 years of follow-up. Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Brigham and Women's Hospital-Harvard. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Dec;15(12):3225-32 

Lead and Cadmium Hair Levels Reduced by Magnesium Supplementation: Magnesium deficiencies may cause increased accumulation of toxic metals including lead and cadmium. In a study of 124 adults in Szczecin, Poland, 65 had high lead levels and participated in a DB PC study. Those taking slow-Mag-B6 preparation at the total daily dose of five tablets divided into 2-3 doses (535 mg of magnesium chloride and 25 mg of vitamin B6 for 3 months had a decrease of lead and cadmium hair content. Magnesium and chosen bioelements in hair. Kozielec T, Salacka A, Karakiewicz B. Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland. Magnes Res. 2004 Sep;17(3):183-8

Leg Cramps: Low Meat, High Plant Diets Higher in Magnesium, Lower in Leg Cramps in Pregnancy: In a study of 108 pregnant women: 38 meat-eaters, 27 ovo-lacto vegetarians and 43 low-meat eaters, significantly higher magnesium intakes were observed in the plant-based diets (508 mg/day for ovo-lacto, and 504 mg/day for low-meat eaters, P<0.001 vs. 412 mg/day for meat eaters. Serum magnesium concentrations were similar, but RBC magnesium was slightly higher in low-meat eaters vs. the meat-eaters. During the third trimester, the frequency and the occurrence of calf cramps was lower in the plant-based diet groups (P=0.004 and 0.008). Long-term effect of a plant-based diet on magnesium status during pregnancy. Koebnick C, Leitzmann R, Garcia AL, Heins UA, Heuer T, Golf S, Katz N, Hoffmann I, Leitzmann C. University of Giessen, Germany. Europ J Clin Nutr. 29 September 2004 

Leg Cramps (Nocturnal) Helped by Magnesium in DB: 60 non-pregnant females received alternatively 300 mg/day of magnesium or placebo for 6 weeks each. Magnesium helped. Randomized, cross-over, placebo controlled trial of magnesium citrate in the treatment of chronic persistent leg cramps. Roffe C, Sills S, Crome P, Jones P. Med Sci Monit. 2002 May;8(5):CR326-30. Quinine can have side-effects but is the standard treatment. Magnesium helps in pregnancy leg cramps, too. 

Menopause: Magnolia Bark with Magnesium Reported Helpful: In a DB manufacturer-funded 24-week study of a combination of soy isoflavones (60 mg), lactobacilli (500 millions spores), calcium (141 mg), vitamin D3 (5 microg), Magnolia bark extract (60 mg) and magnesium (50 mg) (Estromineral serena, ES) vs. calcium and D3 alone in 89 menopausal women, flushing, nocturnal sweating, palpitations, insomnia, asthenia, anxiety, mood depression, irritability, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and libido loss, significantly decreased in severity and frequency during ES versus Ca+D treatment from the fourth week. Woman wellbeing (good/very good 66.7% vs 20%) judgement on efficacy (72.7% vs 17.1%) and acceptability (93.9% vs 31.4%) were significantly better for ES. Soy isoflavones, lactobacilli, Magnolia bark extract, vitamin D3 and calcium. Controlled clinical study in menopause. Mucci M, et al. Chieti, Italy. . Minerva Ginecol 2006 Aug;58(4):323-34.

Migraines: Magnesium Appears to Help in Children: In a 16-week DB PC study of 118 children ages 3-17 with at least weekly, moderate-to-severe headache with a throbbing or pulsatile quality, associated anorexia/nausea, vomiting, photophobia, sonophobia, or relief with sleep, but no fever or evidence of infection, those given magnesium oxide (9 mg/kg per day by mouth divided 3 times a day with food) had a statistically significant decrease over time in headache frequency in the magnesium oxide group (P =.0037) but not in the placebo group (P =.086), although the slopes of these 2 lines were not statistically significantly different from each other (P =.88). The group treated with magnesium oxide had significantly lower headache severity (P =.0029) relative to the placebo group. Oral magnesium oxide prophylaxis of frequent migrainous headache in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Wang F, et al. Kaiser Permanente, Hayward, CA, USA. Headache. 2003 Jun;43(6):601-10. Three DB studies in adults have similar findings, including one of menstrual migraines. Cephalalgia. 1996 Jun;16(4):257-63. Fortschr Med. 1994 Aug 30;112(24):328-30. Headache. 1991 May;31(5):298-301. Headache patients tend to be low in magnesium. However, magnesium supplementation was of no value in one DB and tended to cause diarrhea. Cephalalgia. 1996 Oct;16(6):436-40.

Mitral Valve Prolapse: Magnesium Defiency Said Linked: Idiopathic mitral valve prolapse (IMVP) refers to the systolic displacement of one or both mitral leaflets into the left atrium, with or without mitral regurgitation. It is one of the most common forms of cardiac abnormalities among young people, especially in women. IMVP usually appears to be a benign condition and even capable of recovery. Some studies suggest a link to causing Panic Disorder. Magnesium deficiency may cause abnormal fibrosis, abnormalities in collagen synthesis as well as in the myocardium, capable of inducing mitral apparatus dyskinesia. It is a part of a picture of metabolic abnormalities, alteration of immune and autonomic nervous systems, cardiac arrhythmias and thromboembolic phenomena in IMVP. Mg therapy is essential and specific for IMVP. In the majority of cases MD is due to Mg depletion and the oral Mg supplementation must be combined with Mg-sparing diuretics or physiological doses of vitamin D. Magnes Res. 2005 Mar;18(1):35-52. The importance of magnesium status in the pathophysiology of mitral valve prolapse. Bobkowski W, et al. Poznan University, Poland.  

Muscles Helped by Magnesium Supplements: Several DB studies show improved muscle function in strength, decreased creatine kinase and lactate and oxygen uptake on exercise in athletes or normals. Usually 360 mg/d or 8 mg/kg. Over 500 mg may cause diarrhea and magnesium may interfere with zinc and iron. Am J Clin Nutr 8/00 72:587S. Zinc over 50 mg/d may interfere with copper and decrease HDL at 50-100mg/d. Chromium supplement no value in several studies.

Muscles: Magnesium Supplement Helped in Weight Training: In a 7 week study of just 26 adults, researchers found that those randomized to magnesium supplement enough to increase intake to 8 mg/kg had a significantly greater increase in strength during weight lifting training. W. Wash Univ., J Am Coll Nutr 1992 Jun;11(3):326

Muscles: Magnesium Supplement No Benefit in Marathon Trial: 20 runners randomized for four weeks before marathon to 365 mg of magnesium found no benefit to performance or muscle damage prevention or recovery. Cape Town, Int J Sport Nutr 1992 Jun;2(2):154

Muscles: Mg No Help in Alcoholic Liver Disease: In a 6-week DB PC study of 59 patients with alcoholic liver disease, there was no difference between placebo and Mg for muscle mass or strength, both of which increased. Spironolactone treatment was associated with a 33% increase in the content of Na,K-pumps (p<0.001). Magnesium supplementation and muscle function in patients with alcoholic liver disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Aagaard NK, et al. Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. . Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005 Aug;40(8):972-9.

Neonates Helped by Prenatal Magnesium Sulfate: In a study of 221 neonatal intensive care cases, magnesium sulfate use by the mother before birth was associated with improved Magnesium sulfate may be protective, or at least not detrimental to the newborn infant. Antenatal magnesium treatment and neonatal illness severity as measured by the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP). Deering SH, et al. Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA. . J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005 Feb;17(2):151-5.

Nocturnal Leg Cramps Not Helped in DB: In a 45-patient DB PC crossover 4-week study of 900 mg magnesium citrate twice a day, there was no significant advantage for the magnesium. Magnesium for the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps: a crossover randomized trial. Frusso R, Zarate M, Augustovski F, Rubinstein A. J Fam Pract. 1999 Nov;48(11):868-71. 

Obesity: Higher Magnesium Linked to Lower Weight in Small Study: In a study of 118 adult women, serum magnesium was strongly and inversely associated with body mass index (P=0.001) whereas serum copper had a positive association with body mass index (P=0.025) after adjusting for age, physical activity, energy intake, dietary fat, alcohol consumption, supplements and menopause status. No associations were found with serum calcium and zinc. Associations of serum minerals with body mass index in adult women. Song CH, et al. Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, November 29, 2006.

Ovarian Cancer: Higher Magnesium in Water Protective: In a large case (933)-control (933) study, women with the highest levels of magnesium in the drinking water had the lowest risk of ovarian cancer with an odds ratio of 0.57. Magnesium and calcium in drinking water and risk of death from ovarian cancer. Chiu HF, Chang CC, Yang CY. Taiwan. Magnes Res. 2004 Mar;17(1):28-34

Pain: Magnesium During Surgery Reduced Post-Surgical Pain Medications: Magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) alters pain processing and reduces the induction and maintenance of central sensitization by blocking the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the spinal cord. In a DB PC study, of 120 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery during spinal anesthesia (levobupivacaine and sufentanil), patients were randomly assigned to receive intrathecal MgSO(4) (94.5 mg, 6.3%), epidural MgSO(4) (2%, 100 mg/h), intrathecal and epidural MgSO(4) combined or spinal anesthesia alone (controls). Post-operative morphine consumption was assessed. Morphine consumption at 36 h after surgery was 38% lower in patients receiving spinal anesthesia plus epidural MgSO(4), 49% lower in those receiving spinal anesthesia plus intrathecal MgSO(4) and 69% lower in the intrathecal-epidural combined group relative to control patients receiving spinal anesthesia alone. No complications developed during the post-operative course or at 1 month after surgery. Combined intrathecal and epidural magnesium sulfate supplementation of spinal anesthesia to reduce post-operative analgesic requirements: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Arcioni R, et al.  'La Sapienza' University of Rome, Italy. Acta Anesth Scand 2007 Apr;51(4):482-489. Ed: Morphine and other opiates are poor choices for pain medication. However, this benefit is likely to occur with any pain management protocol.

Pain: Magnesium During Lithotripsy Reduces Pain Meds, Improves Outcome: In a study of 50 patients undergoing shockwave lithotripsy, induction of MAC was produced by bolus doses of midazolam 0.03 mg/kg and fentanyl 0.5 microg/kg followed by intravenous infusion of midazolam 0.015 to 0.06 mg/kg/hr( with fentanyl supplementation 0.2 microg/kg. In addition, group I patients received magnesium sulfate 30 mg/kg IV as a bolus followed by a continuous infusion of 10 mg/kg/hr. Magnesium caused significant decreases in the total consumption of midazolam (P = 0.001) and fentanyl (P = 0.001). In group I, hemodynamic and arterial oxygen parameters were better than in group II. Use of the NMDA antagonist magnesium sulfate during monitored anesthesia care for shockwave lithotripsy. Kaymak C, et al. University of Kirikkale, Turkey. J Endourol 2007 Feb;21(2):145-50.

Pain: Magnesium Epidurally in Hip Surgery Reduced Use of Pain Meds: In 50 patients undergoing hip surgery given either fentanyl or fentanyl plus magnesium sulphate for 24 hours for epidural analgesia, patients receiving magnesium used smaller doses of epidural fentanyl: 328 mcg vs. 437 mcg over 24 hours (P < 0.05). The cumulative fentanyl consumption in 24 h was 437 (sd110) microg in Group F and 328 (121) microg in Group FM (P < 0.05) without any increase in side-effects. Epidural magnesium reduces postoperative analgesic requirement. Bilir A, et al. Br J Anesth 2007 Apr;98(4):519-23.

PMS May be Helped by Magnesium: Study found some beneficial synergistic effect of 200 mg magnesium (as MgO) and 50 mg B6 for 30 days although it says longer period may be necessary for magnesium to make up commonly found deficits. U Reading, J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2000 Mar. A second study by same researchers found benefit from 200mg MgO in second month. J Womens Health 1998 Nov;7(9):1157

Periodontitis: Magnesium Supplementation May Helped Periodontal Disease: In a study of 4290 adults ages 20-80, periodontal risk factors and serum magnesium and calcium were measured. In a matched-pair study, 60 subjects using oral magnesium-containing drugs and 120 without were compared. For adults over 40, increased serum Mg/Ca was significantly associated with reduced probing depth (p < 0.001), less attachment loss (p = 0.006), and a higher number of remaining teeth (p = 0.005). Those taking Mg drugs showed less attachment loss (p < 0.01) and more remaining teeth than did their matched counterparts. Magnesium Deficiency is Associated with Periodontal Disease. Meisel P, et al. Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Greifswald, Germany; J Dent Res. 2005 Oct;84(10):937-41.

Prostatitis Magnesium Low: In a French study, authors note that drastic reduction of Zn and Mg concentrations in the semen fluid may lead to disorders in male fertility. In the seminal plasma of 213 males including 48 normozoospermic, 30 azoospermic, 28 oligoasthenozoospermic, 22 asthenozoospermic and 85 chronic prostatitis, Mg and Zn concentrations were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. While zinc levels did not show correlation either with the volume of the sperm or the percentage of pathological forms, magnesium concentrations in seminal plasma were significantly decreased in chronic prostatitis patients as compared to other groups or normozoospermic patients (p<0.001). Magnesium content in seminal fluid as an indicator of chronic prostatitis. Edorh AP, Tachev K, Hadou T, Gbeassor M, Sanni A, Creppy EE, Le Faou A, Rihn BH. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2003;49 Online Pub:OL419-23

Restless Legs Improved After Bedtime Magnesium: Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are often treated with dopaminergic drugs. Tolerance and rebound exacerbation are common. In an open polysomnographic study in 10 patients (mean age 57) with insomnia from PLMS (n = 4) or mild-to-moderate RLS (n = 6), magnesium 12.4 mmol (about 300 mg) was given in the evening over 4-6 weeks. PLMS associated with arousals (PLMS-A) decreased significantly (17 vs. 7 events per hour, p < 0.05). PLMS without arousal were also moderately reduced (PLMS per hour 33 vs. 21, p = 0.07). Sleep efficiency improved from 75% to 85% (p < 0.01) Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study. Hornyak M, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, Berger M, Riemann D. Albert-Ludwigs-University, Freiburg, Germany. Sleep. 1998 Aug 1;21(5):501-5. Ed: While this is a very poor study due to no placebo and no random assignment\

Sickle Cell Pain Crisis Helped by Magnesium: 19 children were given IV magnesium in the emergency room and after admission every eight hours (40 mg/kg) for up to four days. The average length of stay from to 3.0 days vs. 4.5 days for the two previous admissions. The effect of magnesium on length of stay for pediatric sickle cell pain crisis. Brousseau DC, Scott JP, et al. Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Acad Emerg Med. 2004 Sep;11(9):968-72

Stroke: Low Blood Magnesium Levels Associated with Stroke: In a small 323-patient 20-month prospective study of elderly patients with peripheral artery disease, patients in the lowest third in magnesium levels were much more likely to have a stroke (HR 3.29) than those in the highest third. Jasmin Amighi, Vienna, Stroke 1/2004;35:22-27. Mg deficiency was shown to trigger vasoconstriction and enhance vascular endothelial injury, thus promoting the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

Stroke Reduced by Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium: 85,000 females in Nursing Study found dietary intakes associated with reduced risk after adjust for age and smoking. RR of highest quintiles for Ca 0.69 and for potassium 0.72. Iso, Harvard, Stroke 1999 Sep;30(9):1772

Stroke: Sub-Arachnoid Hemorrhage Vasospasm Damage Reduced: Magnesium reverses cerebral vasospasm and reduces infarct volume after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. In a DB PC study, 283 patients with SAH were started on magnesium sulfate 64 mmol/L/day IV within four days of the bleed until 14 days after the occlusion of the aneurysm.  Magnesium reduced the risk of delayed cerebral ischemia by 34%. After 3 months, the risk reduction for poor outcome was 23%. Magnesium Sulfate in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. A Randomized Controlled Trial. van den Bergh WM. Stroke. 2005 Mar 24

Stroke Not Helped by IV Magnesium on First Day: In a very large 2,589 patient DB PC study, IV magnesium was of no benefit immediately after a stroke.  There was some benefit to lacunar strokes, a type of subcortical stroke. Magnesium for acute stroke (Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke trial): randomised controlled trial. Muir KW, Lees KR, Ford I, Davis S; Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke (IMAGES) Study Investigators. Lancet. 2004 Feb 7;363(9407):439-45

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Linked to Low Magnesium in Water: In a matched case-control study in Taiwan of all SIDS deaths (501 cases) among Taiwan residents from 1988 through 1997 compared with those of who died from other causes (501 controls), there is a significant trend towards a decreased risk of SIDS with increasing magnesium levels in drinking water. Relationship between magnesium levels in drinking water and sudden infant death syndrome. Chiu HF, et al. Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan. Magnes Res. 2005 Mar;18(1):12-8. Ed: Multiple studies have shown that magnesium sulfate aerosols help relief asthma attacks.

Teeth: Magnesium, Not Calcium, Linked to Reduced Tooth Loss: In a study of 1002 pregnant women enrolled in the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study, the adjusted odds ratio upon comparison of the highest quartile with the lowest quartile of magnesium intake was 0.64, showing a tendency for an inverse dose-response relationship with tooth extraction (p = 0.05). There were no associations between the level of consumption of calcium, phosphate, iron, zinc, or copper and tooth loss. agnesium intake is inversely associated with the prevalence of tooth loss in Japanese pregnant women: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study. Tanaka K, et al. Fukuoka University, Japan. . Magnesium Research 2006 Dec;19(4):268-75.

Animal Research

Animal Research: Magnesium Supplements Good: Magnesium supplementation remarkably improves the digestibility of feed. In cows and sows, it has improved the reproduction and shortened the service period. In broilers it increased weight gain, and it has increased egg production of laying hens. In addition, increasing Mg intake benefits the quality of breeding eggs and improves hatching yield. Magnesium in animal nutrition. Gaal KK, et al. University of West-Hungary. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6):754S-7S.

Depression Model in Rats Helped by Adding Magnesium to Imipramine:  Poleszak E, et al. Medical University School, Lublin, Poland. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Jul;81(3):524-9.

Thomas E. Radecki, M.D., J.D.