Fruits & Vegetables
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Grapes & Wine

I haven't yet gathered my general fruit and vegetable studies here.  There are many on this website, but they are listed under the various disease with which they help, e.g. heart disease, stroke, cancers, etc.  However, there are special files on grapes & wine, greens (lutein), tomatoes (lycopene), and quercetin (tea, apples, onions) by clicking above.  There are also a few studies on lutein, lycopene, and quercetin supplements listed on those pages.

Diets high in fruits and vegetables have been linked with many positive health effects.  I strongly encourage people to eat at least five and ideally more servings per day.  

Red Cabbage, Black Beans, Mulberries High in Anti-Oxidants: In the liposome system, at both 10 and 50 microM gallic acid equivalent (GAE) addition levels, the neutral and acidic flavonoids of red cabbage, red lettuce, black bean, mulberry, Gala apple peel, jambolao, acai FP, mulberry FP, and the acidic flavonoids of acerola FP showed the highest antioxidant activities (>85% inhibition). In the beta-carotene bleaching system, the samples cited above plus red guava gave inhibition values >70%. Hassimotto MN, et al. Universidad de Sao Paolo, J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 20;53(8):2928-35. The antioxidant activities (TEAC) in terms of 100 g FW uncooked portion size were in the order: strawberry>> raspberry = red plum >> red cabbage >>>grapefruit = orange > spinach > broccoli > green grape approximately/= onion > green cabbage > pea > apple > cauliflower tomato approximately/= peach=leek > banana approximately/= lettuce. Free Radic Res. 2002 Feb;36(2):217-33. Whole grain breakfast cereals analyzed in this study contained from 2,200-3,500 TE. By comparison, fruits generally ranged from 600-1,700 TE, with a high of 2,200 TE for red plums. Berries averaged 3,700 TE and. vegetables averaged 450 TE with a high of 1,400 TE for red cabbage. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Jun;19(3 Suppl):312S-319S.

Bladder Cancer: Liver, Canned Meat, Pork Bad; Fruit Juice, Cabbage, Frequent Urination Good: In a small,

Breast Cancer: Cruciferous Vegetables May Help: Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage) contain precursors of isothiocyanates (ITCs), which may be chemopreventive through potent inhibition of phase I, and induction of phase II enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). In a cose-control study of 740 women with breast cancer and 810 controls, consumption of cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli, was marginally inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women [4th quartile OR = 0.6, P = 0.058]. Associations were weaker or null among postmenopausal women. Breast cancer risk in premenopausal women is inversely associated with consumption of broccoli, a source of isothiocyanates, but is not modified by GST genotype. Ambrosone CB, et al. Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY. J Nutr. 2004 May;134(5):1134-8

Broccoli Associated with Increase in Chronic Atropic Gastritis: In a study of 439 Japanese adult males, those who ate broccol twice or more often per week hard three times the risk of CAG. Sato K, et al. Okayama Univ. Acta Med Okayama. 2004 Jun;58(3):127-33

Carrots for Smokers Decrease Lung Cancer: 16-year prospective cohort study (the Nurses' Health Study), 593 cases of lung cancer were confirmed during 1,793,327 person-years of follow-up. Dietary data, including vitamin supplement use and food intake, were collected in 1980 using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The risk of lung cancer increased with the number of cigarettes smoked and with early onset of cigarette smoking. The risk decreased rapidly with the discontinuation of smoking but took 15 years to fall to about the level of risk for women who had never smoked. Dietary intake of fat was not related to the risk of lung cancer. Although beta-carotene intake was not related to risk, intake of carrots showed a strong inverse relation: women who reported consuming five or more carrots per week had a relative risk of 0.4 (95% CI = 0.2-0.8) compared with the risk for women who never ate carrots. Harvard : Cancer Causes Control 1999 Oct;10(5):475-82

Animal Products Increase, Vegetables Decrease Lymphoma Risk: Foods high in animal protein, saturated fat, eggs and dairy lead to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), while diets high in dietary fiber -- tomatoes, broccoli, mixed lettuce salad with vegetables, cauliflower, etc.-- were associated with a reduced risk of NHL. 601 Connecticut women, ages 21-84, diagnosed with NHL, using a Food Frequency Questionnaire of the frequency and portion size for 120 foods and beverages were compared to 717 matched controls. Two other studies of American women have similar findings. Tongzhang Zheng. Yale. Amer J Epid. 3/9/04

Oranges, Bananas, Orange Juice May Lower Child Leukemia Risk: In an analysis of 328 cases of childhood leukemia vs.control sets matched on age, sex, Hispanic status, and maternal race, regular consumption of oranges/bananas (OR = 0.49) and orange juice (OR = 0.54) during the first 2 years of life was associated with a reduction in risk of childhood leukemia diagnosed between the ages of 2 and 14 years. No association between eating hot dogs/lunch meats and risk of leukemia was found. These results suggest that fruits or fruit juices that contain vitamin C and/or potassium may reduce the risk of childhood leukemia, especially if they are consumed on a regular basis during the first 2 years of life. Food consumption by children and the risk of childhood acute leukemia. Kwan ML, Block G, et al. University of California. Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Dec 1;160(11):1098-107.

Cross-sectional data from 2,566 children in the Children's Health Study found low total vitamin C intake (< or =10th percentile) was associated with deficits in forced vital capacity for both boys and girls and with deficits in flows. Low intakes of orange and other fruit juices, which were the largest source of vitamin C, were associated with deficits in forced vital capacity and FEV1 in boys. Children's lung function and antioxidant vitamin, fruit, juice, and vegetable intake. Gilliland FD, Berhane KT, et al. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Sep 15;158(6):576-84.

Apple Juice Linked to Shorter, Chunkier Kids: In a small study of 116 two-year-olds and 107 five-year-olds over a two-year period, the children consumed, on average, 5.5 fluid oz/day of fruit juices: 35% apple juice, 31% orange juice, 25% grape juice and 9% other. Children with higher fruit juice intakes had lower total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intakes. Child height was inversely related to apple juice intake (p=0.007) and grape juice intake (p=0.02), after adjustment for child age, gender and energy intake (excluding fruit juice) and maternal height. Apple juice intake was correlated with child body mass index (p<0.05) and ponderal index (p<0.005), after adjustment for the above covariates. Since grape juice often has apple juice added, the researchers caution about the grape juice findings. Children's growth parameters vary by type of fruit juice consumed. Dennison BA, Rockwell HL, et al. Columbia University. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Aug;18(4):346-52. Ed: This is a small study.  But apple juice seems to lack the nutrient content of other juices.  Better to eat apples or applesauce.

Citrus Peel May Reduce Skin Cancer: Limonene is effective in preclinical models of breast and colon cancers. D-limonene comes from the oils of orange, grapefruit, and lemon peel. In a case-control study, 64.3% and 74.5% of adults reported weekly consumption of citrus fruits and citrus juices, respectively. Orange juice (78.5%), orange (74.3%), and grapefruit (65.3%) were the main varieties consumed. Peel consumption was not uncommon, with 34.7% reporting citrus peel use. There was no association between the overall consumption of citrus fruits [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99] or citrus juices (OR = 0.97) and skin squamous cell cancer. However, a 34% reduction was found with citrus peel consumption (OR = 0.66). Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship between higher citrus peel in the diet and degree of risk lowering. Citrus peel use is associated with reduced risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Hakim IA, Harris RB, et al. University of Arizona. Nutr Cancer. 2000;37(2):161-8.

Microalbuminuria Less With Higher Carotenoid Levels: Microalbuminuria may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. In 9,575 US adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, after adjustment for age, sex, race or ethnicity, education, smoking status, cotinine concentration, physical activity, alcohol use, fruit and vegetable intake, vitamin or mineral use during the past 24 hours, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein concentrations, concentrations of beta-cryptoxanthin (odds ratio for quartile of highest concentration compared with quartile of lowest concentration, 0.56), lutein/zeaxanthin (OR 0.59), lycopene (OR 0.64), and total carotenoids (OR 0.54) were associated inversely with microalbuminuria. Vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium concentrations were not significantly associated with microalbuminuria. Microalbuminuria and concentrations of antioxidants among US adults. Ford ES, Giles WH, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005 Feb;45(2):248-55.

Leukemia: Mothers Eating Meat and Sugar in Pregnancy Increased Risk of Leukemia in Their Infants; Fish, Fruits, Vegetables Reduced the Risk: Because leukemia clone-specific chromosomal abnormalities are present at birth in children who later develop leukemia, the authors did a nationwide case-control study of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) among children ages 12 to 59 months in Greece. Children (n=131) with ALL were matched to control children (n=131) hospitalized for minor conditions. Controlling for total energy intake and possible confounding factors, the risk of ALL in the offspring was 28% lower with increased maternal intake of fruits (OR, 0.72), 24% for increased vegetables (OR, 0.76), and 28% for increased fish and seafood (OR, 0.72), but 32% higher for maternal intake of sugars and syrups (OR, 1.32) and 25% higher for meat and meat products (OR, 1.25). Children of women who tend to consume during their pregnancies what is currently considered to be a healthy diet maybe at lower risk of ALL. Maternal diet and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in young children. Petridou E, et al. Athens University, Greece. . Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Aug;14(8):1935-9.